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'4863' 



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UNJV. OF MASSACHUSETTS/AMHERST 
LIBRARY 



SB 
383 
W58 
1885 
cop. 2 



CPNBEl^^Y CUIiTH^E, 



BY 



JOSEPH J. WHITE, 



A PBAOTICAL GBOWEB, 



NEW AND ENLARGED EDITION. 



ILLUSTRATED. 




NEW YORK; 

ORAJSTGE JUDD COMPANY, 

1907 






Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1885, by the 

ORANGE JUDD COMPANY, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



PREFACE TO NEW EDITION. 



With tlie assistance of some of our most successful 
growers, the writer has endeavored to furnish a few facts 
for the guidance of those who are inexperienced in Cran- 
berry Culture. A Aery small percentage of the land in 
any country is adapted to the growth of the Cranberry, 
and as the most experienced growers frequently fail in 
selecting locations, beginners are advised to proceed cau- 
tiously until their ground has been practically tested, and 
to observe closely the effects of drainage, flowage, etc., 
as it is impossible to prescribe rules for the management 
of every location. J. J. White. 

New Lisbon, JV, J., January, 1885. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 



In view of the rapidly increasing demand for a reliable 
guide, or text-book for the cranberry culturist, we have 
attempted, with the liberal aid of some of our most suc- 
cessful growers, to prepare such a work. 

Our aim has been to t^mbody, in a plain and concise 
manner, all the useful and practical facts which study and 
experience have yielded to the inquiring cranberry grower 
of the present time. The business has increased enor- 
mously within tlie last ten years, and knowledge and ex- 
perience have kept pace with that increase. The insuf- 
ficiency of the works upon this subject, which we have 
hitherto taken as books of reference, is very apparent. 

We have endeavored to make this Avork as comprelien- 
sive as possible, and we trust it will prove an efficient 
guide to all who may have cause to consult its pages. 

J. J. W. 

JuLiusiowN, Burlington Co., N. J., 
March, 1870. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I. 
Natural History 7 

CHAPTER II. 
History of Cultivation 19 

CHAPTER III. 
Choice OF Locations 25 

CHAPTER IV. 
Preparing the Ground 35 

CHAPTER V. 
Planting the Vines 50 

CHAPTER VI. 
Management of Meadows 57 

CHAPTER VII. 
Flooding 64 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Enemies and Difficulties 71 

CHAPTER IX. 
Picking 85 

CHAPTER X. 
Keeping 91 

CHAPTER XI. 
Profit and Loss 96 

CHAPTER XII. 
Letters from Practical Growers 100 

APPENDIX. 

Insects In.jurtoits to the Cranberry . 1 1 .3 

A New Vine-worm ; 123 

The Scald or Rot 125 

(5) 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS, 



Bell Cranberry Pa^e 9 

Uugle " ; 11 

Cherry " 13 

Section of Heath Pond 30 

Feather-leaf— Cassandra calycidaia 31 

Section of Swamp 32 

Section of Savanna 33 

Section of Mill-Pond 34 

Bi 11-hook 36 

Cutting and Paring Turf. 87 

Main and Side Drains 38 

Sanding a Meadow 39 

Trenching for Sand 42 

Sphagnum Moss and Cranberries 43 

Turf Cutter 44 

Section of a Turf Fence 46 

Plants on Clean and Rooty Surfaces 48 

Planting in Strips 48 

Planting in Hills 52 

Planting in Drills 53 

Proper Position of Vines 53 

Incorrectly Planted 54 

Correctly Planted 54 

Planting by Pressure 55 

Double-seeded Millet 59 

Levelling fi*> 

Dam Supported by Turf 67 

Flood-gate 69 

Embankment Supported by a Turf Fence 70 

Work of the Fruit-worm "^^ 

The Vine-worm and its Work "^^ 

Portable Fan SO 

Peck Box ^6 

Cranberry Fan 93 

6 



CRANBERRY CULTURE. 



CHAPTER I. 

NATURAL HISTORY. 

The Cranberry is supposed to have been so named 
from the appearance of its bud. Just before expanding 
into the perfect flower, the stem, calyx and petals resem- 
ble the neck, head and bill of a crane — hence the name, 
" cranebeny," or " cranberry." According to botanical 
classification, the Cranberry belongs to the Natural Order 
Ericaceae, or Heath Family, and to the genus Yaccinium. 
Bilberries and whortleberries also belong to the same 
genus. There are two species of Cranberry growing 
within our territory — the Small Cranberry, Yaccinium 
Oxy coccus^ and the Large, or American Cranberry, Vac- 
clnlum macrocarpon. 

The runners of the K Oxycoccus are very slender, 
being from four to nine inches long. The loaves are about 
one-fourth of an inch long, ovate, with strongly revolute 
margins. The Small Cranberry is found in the peat bogs 
of Xew England and Pennsylvania, and westward to 
Wisconsin, and northward. 
7 



8 CEANBERRY CULTURE. 

C. L. Flint speaks of liaving observed it in the swamps 
of Provincetowii, Massachusetts, wlit-re it is called the 
" Spice Cranberry ;" it is also found in South .America, 
and on the vast steppes of Russia, also occasionally in the 
wastes of Siberia. 

The V. Oxyeocciis flowers in June. Tlie berries are 
about one-fourth inch in diameter, and often speckled 
with white when young; owing to its small size and acrid 
flavor, this species is seldom gathered for the market. It 
is said that in Sweden, the acid juice of tliis berry was 
formerly used to boil silver plate in, that it might eat off 
the minute particles of copper alloy. 

The Y. macrocarpon puts forth stems or runners vary- 
ing from one foot to six feet or more in length. The 
tendency of these runners is to trail upon the ground, and 
send down numerous little roots to draw up moisture and 
nourishment for the flowering branches which ascend 
from the runners, at frequent intervals, to the height of 
from three to twelve inclies. The loaves are oblong, 
about half an inch in length, and are covered with a 
whitish bloom underneath. 

The V. macrocarpon also flowers in June, producing 
berries varying from one-fourth to one inch in diameter; 
these are of a light green color while growing, but when 
fully ripe^ of a bright crimson, or carmine color. It is a 
native of North America, and is found growing naturally 
in the peat bogs of Virginia, and westward to ^linnesota, 
also northward, and abundantly in the British Posses- 
sions. In Minnesota and Wisconsin it grovs extensively, 
being gathered in large (piantities by the Indians. 

Its favorite resorts are swamps and morasses containing 
rich bottoms of decomposed vegetable matter, commonly 
called muck, or peat. Tliese swamps are apt to be flood- 
ed during every wet term, especially in winter and early 
spring ; but in the growing season they attain some degree 
of dryness^ without which the vines will not flourish. 



NATURAL HISTORY. 




1* 



10 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

This is not apparent at first sight, as the vines appear to 
l)e growing in the water ; but upon closely examining 
plants growing in a wet swamp, the roots will be found 
not penetrating the muck, as was at first suj^posed, but 
entwining themselves among the sphagnum moss above 
it (see fig. 14). The water settling away at certain seasons 
of the year leaves the moss comparatively dry, although 
it possesses the property of retaining suflficient moisture 
to support the plants, even in the dryest times. 

ANALYSIS. 

An analysis of this fruit was made, some years ago, by 
Professor E. X. Horsford, of Cambridge, with the follow- 
ing results in one hundred parts : 

Water 88.78 

Ash , 17 

Woody fibre, or<,'aiHc acids, etc 11.05 

100.00 

Percentage of potash in the ash 42.67 

" " soda '• " 1.17 

The berries weie dried in a steam chamber at 212° F., 
and from these the ash determined by slow combustion 
in a platinum crucible. 

The qualitative analysis of the ash indicated the pres- 
ence of the following substances, viz. : Potassa, soda, 
lime, magnesia, sesquioxide of iron, sesquioxide of man- 
ganese, sulphuric acid, chlorine, silicic acid, carbonic 
acid, phosplioric acid, charcoal and sand. 

From this analysis it will be seen that only seventeen 
one-hundredths, or less than two-tenths of one per cent 
of the Cranberry are found in the ash, as inorganic matter 
derived from the soil, all the rest being derived from the 
atmosphere and from watei*. 

" The results of experience are, therefore," says Flint, 
*' strikingly corroborated by the deductions of science, 



NATURAL HISTOEY. 



11 




12 CRANBERRY CULTtTRE. 

tliat tlie Cranberry will grow where notlnng else will. It 
explains, too, liow it i> tliat it seems to require little for its 
perfect development but air and water." 

The American Cranberry is divided, by writei's upon 
this subject, into three varieties. 

1st. The Bell Cranberry (fig. 1). — This variety is so 
named befause of its resemblance to a l)ell in shape. 

2d. The Bustle Cranberry (fig. 2), was so called from 
its resemblance to a bugle bead, being elongated, and ap- 
proaching in shape to an oval. 

3d. The Cherry Cranberry (fig. 3) is spherical in form, 
and somewhat similar in shaj^e, size, and color to the 
cherry, from which it derives its name. 

These varieties are to be known only by their fruits; 
the difference in the appearance or growth of the vines 
being insuflicient to distinguish tliem. Although tlie dif- 
ferent forms, previously described, arc distinct, and well 
marked, one plant producing one variety only, yet cran- 
berries arc found existing in all the intermediate sliapes 
between these ; for instance, the Bell and the Cherry cran- 
berries are distinctly marked, but many specimens are 
found bearing so much resemblance to both, that one 
could not tell to whicli variety they belonged. 

There are, apparently, different varieties of vines also, 
some being lower and more trailing than others, but even 
these low vines produce fruit of various qualities. The 
larcrest cranberries we have yet seen — being about one 
inch in diameter — belonged to the Bell variety, and were 
grown upon vines of this character, originally obtained 
from a natural bog by .John Webb. 

Other characteristics exist beside the shape of tlie fruit, 
characteristics which are much more important, to be 
observed by the grower ; for instance, if one goes into 
the market with the view of selling a lot of cranberries, 
the question is not What sJtape are they ? but rather, 
Are they well colored f or, Are they of good size f 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



13 




14 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

Color IS the quality most regarded ; light colored fruit 
is suspected of being unripe. Color affects the price 
from $1 to $3 per barrel, the darkest fruit bringing 
the highest price. Dark berries are the most attractive, 
but i)ale ones are not always unripe. The fruit of an 
undescribed New Jersey variety is cream-colored when 
fully ripe, and remains so. It is large, a good keej^er, 
and inviting on the table. 

Many berries which ultimately turn red, are very light- 
colored at picking time, while others at that time are 
entirely red. Those disposed to become red, remain 
lio^ht-colored if shaded by the matted vines. There is a 
marked difference in the time of coloring of berries that 
are alike in shape and grown under the same conditions. 

This fact renders the selection of vines for planting an 
important matter, since a small portion of light-colored 
berries will, if not removed, seriously affect the sale of 
the whole lot. 

Vines producing red berries, ripening uniformly, are 
very desirable ; but there is no way of selecting the best 
yines, except by a knowledge of the fruit they produce, 
and this should be had, if possible, before using them. 

In Xew Jersey and the We&tern States, but little atten- 
tion has been given to the selection of vines for planting. 
Some years ago, a variety was discovered on Cape Cod, 
Mass., and called *^ Early Black." This has been ex- 
tensively propagated on the Cape. It is dark red, matures 
several weeks earlier than the ordinary varieties, and 
commands the highest prices in the early market. 

It is also an important matter, in transplanting vines, 
to secure those yielding large- sized berries, for the reason 
that fine, showy fruit is at a premium in the markets, 
and will always command the highest prices. 

The ai^pearance of one's marketing has very much to 
do with the price obtained for it in large cities, most of 
the inhabitants of which have but a slight acquaintance 



NATURAL HISTOIJV. 15 

wjtn the different varieties of fruits or vegetables. The 
best looking are selected first ; reasoning by analogy, they 
conclude tliat the largest and fairest must necessarily be 
the best, but in this they frequently err. Those varieties 
of fruit which are finest, and possess the highest flavor, 
are generally of medium size. We know of no especial 
difference in the flavor of cranberries, whether they be 
large or small. But the small varieties are certainly the 
best keepers, and also the heaviest, they being almost 
solid, while the largest sorts are quite hollow. 

It has been asserted by writers upon this subject that 
there are two kinds of cranberry vines, viz., the produc- 
tive, and the barren ; or, as B. Eastwood terms them, the 
" healthy, and the unhealthy vine." He says : " The 
healthy vine, as far as we have been able to discover, pre- 
sents an appearance of greenish-brown on the leaf; the 
spears and runners are fine and thin, remarkable for their 
wiry nature and aspect. They seem of stunted growth, 
but form beautiful and tufted groups of spears in their 
process of matting. The unhealthy vine appears alto- 
gether brighter and stronger, and hence, from this pecu- 
liarity, some are apt to be mistaken ; for instance, a prac- 
tical grower was disappointed in finding his most luxuriant 
vines, and those from which he had expected the best 
returns, barren. ' The barren vines,' said he, ' looked 
greener, had more bushy leaves and stronger or thicker 
spears than those which produced the most fruit.' I felt 
confident, from their appearance, that they were the best 
vines I ever saw ; but I lived to find out that these signs, 
which I took to indicate the productiveness of the plant, 
were only symptoms of disease^ which disease means 
barrenness.'''' 

Another failure, resulting from the same cause, has been 
brought to our notice. 

A farmer near Bristol, Pa., desiring to cultivate cran- 
berries, procured vines from several reliable growers in 



16 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

New Jersey and Massachusetts, and planted tliem in low, 
rich, meadow ground, which to him seemed suitable for 
them. They were carefully tended, and the growth was 
most luxuriant, but there Avas no fiuit. Supposing a cover- 
ing of sand would cheek the growth, he procured some at 
heavy expense, and S}>read it over them; still they 
remained barren, and after several years of unfruitfulness, 
were offered to a New Jersey grower for setting out a new 
bed. But the appearance of the vines condemned them; 
they had become almost as thick as pea vines, and the 
gix)wer would not accept them, even gratuitously. Per 
hap-? the only way of making this patch fruitful would 
have been to have covered the vines, during several suces- 
sive winters, with as much clear sand as they would grow 
through, until a covering of six or eight inches had been 
placed upon the original soil. 

We have visited hundreds of acres of cultivated cranber- 
ry meadows, the vines for which were taken indiscrimin- 
ately from natural bogs, without reference to their kind or 
quality, and we have yet to see the first square rod of 
barren vines, the cause of which could not be traced to 
the soil on which they were growing. 

]>arrenness may result from two causes, viz., the soil 
may be too rich in vegetable matter, or it may be too 
}>oor. 

The cranberry plant, like many others, if put on very 
strong land, Avill run to vine, and produce little or no 
fruit. The sweet potato, for instance, sometimes makes a 
great show upon the surface during the growing season, 
without yielding, when harvested, the . abundant crop 
that its vines seemed to promise. 

Generally speaking, where we hear of barren vines, we 
hear of a luxuriant growth. Productive vines, of good 
repute, have, to our certain knowledge, become fruitless 
by being placed under circumstances most favorable for 
their growth and development. 



NATURAL HISTORY. 17 

There are two remedies for an over-abundant growth of 
vine ; viz., sand and water, of which we will speak more 
fully hereafter. 

Another cause of unfruitfulness may be the extreme 
poverty of the soil. Sand is sometimes so deficient in 
vegetable matter as to produce little or no vine, and 
when this is the case, much fruit cannot be expected. 

As before stated, the Cranberry grows naturally on 
moist bottoms ; and soils of this character are the only 
ones upon which it can be cultivated profitably, although 
designing nurserymen have asserted to the contrary, with 
the view of disposing of their plants. By way of illus- 
tration we give the following, taken from the catalogue 
of an old established nursery: 

'' The True Cape Cod variety^ now oflfered, is by far 
the best in cultivation, and succeeds best in uplands. 
There are several sorts in the market, known as the 
" Bell," the " Cherry," and many other fancy names, 
which do not comj)are with this, in real, practical value. 
Plants, packed with great care. |2 per 100, $10 per 1,000." 
To complete the deception, they quote a writer in the 
Maine Farmer, w^ho says : " My crop, grown on loam, in 
1863, was at the rate of 453 bushels per acre." Other 
statements are also made in the catalogue, which are cal- 
culated to mislead the unsuspecting or ignorant, and in- 
duce them to pay enormous prices for plants which will 
be of little or no advantage to them, if planted in the 
manner recommended ; viz., "on upland," and " on loam." 
The policy of their assertions is evident ; small fruits, for 
one's own family, are generally grown in the garden, upon 
selected upland, and every one owning such a spot would 
naturally desire to have this valuable fruit among his 
collection. 

But comparatively few possess ground adapted to cran- 
berries, hence imprincipled dealers recommend a system 



18 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

of culture for the many, that they may sell the more 
vines. 

There is a plant called the High-hush, or High Cran- 
berry ( Viburnum Opulus), indigenous to North America, 
found on uplands in many localities in the Nortlern 
States. C. L. Flint says : " It is a beautiful shrub, some- 
times ten or twelve feet high, having a white blossom, 
and a fruit somewhat smaller than the common cranberry, 
perfectly red, and of an acid taste, well adaj^ted for pies, 
tarts, etc., for which it is often used. The fruit differs 
from the common cranberry in having a small, oblong 
stone, instead of seeds. It is easily propagated from the 
seeds, layers, or cuttings, and is often found as a garden 
shrub, flourishing in every variety of soil, sands and 
clays, wet and dry. Its berries grow in clusters, and are 
persistent through the winter." 

'' The plant called, in Maine, the Mountain Cranberry 
(V(-(cei?iium Yitis-Idma)^ has leaves shaped like those of 
our common Cranberry, and bears an acid fruit, used for 
the same purposes as our cranberry. It is occasionally 
met with in Massachusetts, where it is called the ' Cow 
Berry.' " 

There is still another plant {Arctostajyhylos Uva-ursi, 
Sprcng. Arbutus of Linn.) found in abundance on Cape 
Cod, and there called the Hog Cranberry. It also grows 
abundantly in the Pine region of New Jersey, where it 
is known as the Grouse Berry, Upland Cranberry, also 
Bearberry and Uva-ursi, and in some parts as " Universe," 
a corruption of Uva-ursi. 

It is not properly a variety of the cranberry, but be- 
longs to a different genus. Like that plant, however, it 
is trailing, and has leaves somewhat similar in sliape. Its 
fruit is red, but smaller than the cranberry, and of a dry, 
mealy nature. Both fruit and leaves are used for me- 
dicinal purposes ; the latter are also in demand among the 
inhabitants as a substitute for tea. The plant may be ob- 



HISTORY OF CULTIVATION. 19 

tained in large quantities from its native soil, the dry and 
barren sands of Cape Cod, and the Pines of South Jersey. 



CHAPTER n. 

HISTORY OF CULTIVATIOK 

Fifty years ago, one embarking extensively in the culti- 
vation of the cranberry would have been comparable to a 
craft putting to sea without chart or compass. Doubts 
would have accompanied his progress, and the possibility 
of profit resulting from his labors have been exceedingly 
uncertain, for the reason tliat the wrong courses to be 
pursued were far more numerous than the right ones. 
Hence it was that the early cultivators ventured out 
very cautiously, risking but little of their labor or capital 
in the doubtful enterprise. 

Many failed, but failures, although unpleasant, are not 
entirely without good results, and should be carefully 
chronicled, to the end that others may learn wisdom, and 
not fall into the same errors. 

Some were partially successful, and their names have 
become connected with the business, although their 
achievements have been far surpassed by men of whom 
Ave have never heard ; yet they were comparatively suc- 
cessful in their day, and they deserve our notice now, for 
having laid the foundation of successful cultivation. 

These i)ioneers in the business were men of enterprise ; 
for they not only encountered many difficulties in growing 
the fruit, but were unable to sell it, when grown, for re- 
munerative prices. Strange as :t may appear, when the 
supply of cranberries was very limited, and derived al- 
most entirely from natural bogs, the price per bushel was 



20 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

discoiiragingly low. For instance, about thirty years 
ago, two well-known merchants of Medford, N. J., in- 
vested in a lot of good, natural cranberries, with the view 
of speculation. The price paid- was 62 cents per bushel, 
and yet they lost money by the operation. 

The success of a few cultivators becoming known, 
others w^ere induced to attempt the business, and as the 
supply gradually increased, the berries were exposed for 
sale in new markets, and people who had before been un- 
acquainted with them were, perhaps, attracted by their 
fine appearance, and led to give them a trial in the famous 
tart or sauce, — a trial being sufficient to convince even the 
most skeptical of their excellence, and create a demand 
for them wherever they were introduced. 

This demand, steadily increasing, even faster than the 
supply, caused the j^rices to advance, and as the business 
became remunerative, growers were multiplied in num- 
bers, and stimulated to greater exertions. But, notwith- 
standing the enormously increased production, the demand 
lias increased still more rapidly, and consequently the 
price has kept pace M'ith it. 

Boswcll, writing for the "Public Ledger," Philadelphia, 
about twenty years ago, on the cultivation, preservation, 
and transportation of the cranberry, said : " There is 
ten times the quantity raised now that there was forty 
years ago; but instead of the price being lower than for- 
merlv, it is one hundred per cent higher. Forty years 
a<?o, in Boston, which has always been the great depot 
for this fruit, the price was from 75 cents to $1.00 per 
bushel, but for a few years past the price has ranged from 
$1.50 to $2.50 per bushel." 

It may safely be said that, within the last ten years, 
the production has increased at least tenfold, and the 
price is uow one hundred per cent higher than that named 
by Boswell. In fact, a ])ortion of the croj-) of 186G was 
sold by the growers at $10 per bushel. 



mSTORY or CULTIVATIOX. 2] 

This price, however, is unusually high, and was caused 
by a partial failure in the crop of that season ; it is only 
mentioned to illustrate how highly the fruit is appreciated 
where it is best known. 

Although the Cranberry is indigenous to many parts 
of Xorth America, there are comparatively few localities 
where it has been cultivated. The most important of 
these are : Cape Cod, Mass., West New Jersey and Wis- 
consin. Other New England States, New York, Michigan, 
and Minnesota, have cultivated it more or less. 

The first attempts at the cultivation of the Cranberry 
in this country, were made on Cape Cod, about the year . / 
1820. The pioneer cultivators in that locality of course 
were enabled to gain considerable experience and profi- 
ciency in growing the crop long before any attention was 
given to this branch of fruit culture in either New Jer- 
sey or any of the Western States. 

S. B. Phinney says : " Half a century has now elapsed 
since Captain Henry Hall, of Dennis, in the County of 
Barnstable, Mass., commenced the cultivation of the cran- 
berry. His bog, or 'cranberry yard,' as he called it, has 
no year since failed of producing a remunerative crop. 
For the next thirty years after Mr. Hall commenced, 
many experiments were made by others, and most of them 
proved to be failures. The general cultivation does not 
date back further than the year 1850, yet since that date '^ 
there have been many failures, and many bogs, recently 
set, will never yield remunerative crops. By this term, 
and by ' successful cultivation,' I mean that the crops, in- 
cluding the present value of the bogs, have more than 
repaid the original cost, interest, and incidental expenses 
of cultivating, picking, and sending to market." 

It was not until about the year 1845 that the first vines - - 
were planted in New Jersey ; and for several years the 
history of the Cape Cod pioneers was repeated in the 
numerous failures that foUciwed. Although the Jersey- 



22 CRAXBERRY CULTURE. 

men had heard something of the success of cranberry 
culture in New England, but thc}^ knew little or nothing 
of the methods of cultivation by which this success was 
achieved. Having nothing to guide them in their early 
attempts at cranberry culture, it is not surprising that 
the New Jersey growers found it unprofitable. Indeed, 
^it is estimated that until towards the year 18G0, nine- 
tenths of those Avho undertook it failed. 

John Webb, of Ocean County, was perhaps one of the 
earliest successful experimenters in this State. lie com- 
menced by removing some sods of vines from a neighbor- 
ing swamp, and placing them in a damp spot, that proved 
to be adapted to their growth ; in this they flourished, 
and, in course of time, the ground was covered with 
vines yielding paying crops. 

Barclay White, one of the first cultivators in Burling- 
ton County, writing, in ISo"), to the ISccretary of the Mas- 
sachusetts Board of Agriculture, said : "In the sprinor of 
1851, I commenced operations by plowing up (the turf 
was turned under), and ])lanting about three-fourths of 
an acre on a black, peaty soil, oi twelve or fifteen inches 
in depth, with a white sand and gravel subsoil. On either 
side, a few hundred yards distant, on ground in which a 
horse would mire, tlie wild vines weie growing luxuri- 
antly. I struck out the rows four feet apart each way, 
and planted a sod of v^ines, some four inches square, at 
each intersection. They were cultivated some that season. 
That fall we picke<l three ]K^cks of fruit, large and fine ; 
about an equal quantity had been destroyed by a worm, 
similar in appearance to the apple-worm. In 1852, I 
planted about one and a quarter acres in a similar manner, 
excepting that the hills were placed four feet by two feet 
apart. The product that fall was about six bushels of 
large fruit, picked about the last of August, but they did 
not keep well The vines had become so matted as to ad- 



HISTORY OF CULTIVATION. 23 

mit of no cultivation, except hand pulling the grass and 
huckleberry bushes ; (weeds there were none). 

''No more vines were planted. From the two acres, we 
picked (about Sept. 7th, 1853,) fourteen bushels of sound 
fruit; about seven bushels rotted on the vines within two 
weeks previous to picking. Those picked were spread 
out thinly upon floors, out of the reach of frost, and de- 
cayed rapidly. I think the loss from decay in five months 
from the time of jHcking, would amount to seventy-five 
per cent ; while of the wild berries, picked about the same 
time, and kept in the same manner, the loss from decay 
was not more than one or two per cent. 

"Upon viewing the plantation in the latter part of August, 
1854, 1 found the vines most luxuriant, matting completely 
over the surface of the ground. There appeared then to 
be about twenty-five or thirty bushels of sound fruit upon 
them, not quite ripe enough for picking. These soon 
commenced rotting, and when they were picked, about 
the middle of September, I secured only about ten bushels 
of sound fruit, which kept quite as badly as during the 
previous winter. 

" Such has been my experience in the cultivation of the 
cranberry ; and unless I can find a remedy for this rotting 
of the berry, I must abandon the business as unprofitable. 

"If this can be avoided, there is an excellent opportu- 
nity here to cultivate them extensively and profitably. 
They begin to rot about the commencement of their 
ripening or coloring, on the side touching the ground, 
presenting the appearance of having been scalded. I 
have thought it might be owing to the hot sun shining on 
them after rain, scalding the part touching the earth. 
Possibly, when the vines become thicker, shading the 
ground more thoroughly, it may be corrected. If that is 
the case, I will try a new plantation, setting out the 
plants one foot apart each way." 

There was much truth in his supposed cause of the 



24 CRAXBERRY CULTURE. 

decay, as well as in the remedy; such were the difficul- 
ties whicli continually harrassed the first cultivators. 
They had no experience to guide their steps ; no certain 
rules of procedure; consequently the slow progress, and 
frequent failures. 

It was not until near the year 1860 that the cranberry 
business was commenced in earnest in New Jersey. Since 
that time it has rapidly developed, until now the value 
of cultivated cranberry property in this State, alone, may 
be estimated at several millions of dollars. In fact. Pro- 
fessor Cook, State Geologist for New Jersey, alluding to 
this production in his report of 1869, said : "Already 
\J our fields supply more than half of all raised in the 
United States." Our crop of that year being estimated 
at more than one hundred thousand bushels. 

And yet, with these enormous results, their cultivation 
is principally confined to three counties, viz.. Ocean, Bur- 
lington, and Atlantic, and j)erhaps not one two-hundredth 
part of the area of these is fitted for their culture. 

The three counties, before named, include most of what 
is known as " The Pines," — an imcultivated region, con- 
taining about twelve hundred thousand acres. 

From the position it occupies,between the two great cities 
of the nation, it may be a marvel to some that this region 
should have remained so long uncultivated; but it is ex- 
plained in few words. The soil is light and sandy, not suit- 
ed to growing grass or the cereals, but yielding good crops 
when planted in small fruits. These, with the exception of 
cranberries, require easy and rapid facilities for marketing ; 
such as are only obtained in the interior by the use of rail- 
roads, and those, until recently have been withheld. 
Hence, the swamps were left to make cedar, and the 
uplands to produce pine timber. But now, railroad 
facilities are being afforded, and large portions of " The 
Pines" are destine<l to become as a fruitful garden under 
the skillful management of the fruit grower. 



CHOICE OF LOCATIONS. 25 

CHAPTER III, 

CHOICE OF LOCATIONS. 

Every possessor of waste swamp land is interested to 
know whether, by planting it in cranberries, he may not 
'' make it to blossom as the rose," and, at the same time, 
increase his revenue. 

To every one about to engage in the cranberry business, 
the pr(>p3r location for a meadow, as regards its soil and 
surroundings, is a matter of the utmost importance ; for 
the reason, that, if a suitable soil is not selected at the 
start, the greatest care in preparing the ground, in setting 
out the vines, and in nursing them afterw^ard, will fail to 
make the undertaking a success. Whereas, should a bog 
be chosen that is really ((dapted to their groivth^ some 
carelessness in regard to preparing and planting may fol- 
low without causing a failure. 

The Cranberry is peculiar in its tastes and habits. On 
some soils it cannot be made to thrive, while upon others 
it is very hardy, and easily propagated. Indeed, w^e have 
known instances where vines, just dropped upon the sur- 
face, have taken root and grow^n. But skill and care are 
always essential in the management of a cranberry mead- 
ow, in order to obtain the l>est results. 

We Avould recommend any one who contemplates in- 
vesting largely in this business to visit, if convenient, 
some locality where it has been successfully conducted, 
that he may form a more correct idea of what is required, 
than could possibly be imparted by a description. 
^1 The alluvial formation is the only one in which the cran- 
berry can be successfully cultivated. Though this forma- 
tion includes the most barren and the most fertile soils, the 
dryest and the wettest yet its character is well marked, 
and it can be easily distinguished. Sand, or quartz rock, 
3 



26 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

pulverized or granulated, is alluvium^ separated from the 
drift by the waves and currents of the ocean, and eleva- 
ted by the action of the waters. The deltas, or rich in- 
terval lands near the outlets of rivers, are alluvium, and 
are formed by the subsiding of the finer particles brought 
down by the streams. 

The mud found in the narrow bogs and creeks near the 
sea shore, and the muck, or peat, underlying swamps and 
fen-lands, are of the same character. 

Salt an<l fresh meadows, formed partly by deposits of 
mtid, ami partly by decayed vegetable and animal mat- 
ter, belong to the same class. In fact, all alluvial forma- 
tions are caused by the action of water. 

There are several varieties of muck, or peat, all of 
which have a fertilizing effect upon the cranberry vine. 
Muck is composed almost entirely of decayed vegetable 
matter, but deposits are found in different stages of de- 
composition ; those most thoroughly decomposed being 
best adapted to our purpose. Professor Sidney K. Smith, 
of N. J., has analyzed a sample of muck, with the follow- 
ing results : 

" The muck is spread on a plate, and placed over a ves- 
sel of boiling water — this affords a means of maintaining 
an equal temperature at 212° F. In this position it will 
lose 50 per cent (' IJ its weight of water. If you will weigh 
100 parts of the sample thus dried, and burn it, and then 
weigh, you will have from 6 to 30 parts of ashes; so that 
from 70 to 94 per cent is organic matter, which took the 
gaseous or aeriform state as soon as heat enough was ap- 
plied. 

" But this difference in weight of ash comes chiefly 
from the larger per cent of sand, or silicates, in some varie- 
ties than in others ; asi<le from this, since the amount of 
the salts of potash, soda, lime, etc., is small, compared with 
the whole weight of the muck, it need not be reckoned. 

" It is, then^ the volatile or organic part that contnins 



CHOICE OF LOCATIONS. 27 

the elements of fertility which we want to render avaihi- 
ble for plant-food. This part has been found, by careful 
analysis, to consist of several substances, to which has 
been given the general name of Geine. Some kinds of 
muck contain as high as 95 per cent of geine ; and. in 
this are locked up nearly all tlie fertilizing substances 
(ammonia excepted) to be found in cow-dung. The 
average amount of soluble geine found in peat is estima- 
ted at 25 per cent ; the more soluble it is, the greater 
will be its value." 

/ The cranberry cannot be successfully cultivated in the 
^'''' Drift formation.'''' Hundreds of experiments have been 
tried, and nearly all have proved to be failures. Pro- 
fessor Agassiz describes the drift formation as being that 
portion of the earth's surface which was formed by glacial 
action, and consisting of rocks not in place — that is, 
loose, and not in solid ledges — gravel, clay, and loam. 
This definition is plain, and to the point, and will enable 
any one locating a cranberry meadow to distinguish the 
drift, and reject it. Bogs, naturally well adapted to the 
growth of this fruit, have been ruined by using drift ma- 
terial in preparing them. 

In some bogs where partly drift and partly alluvium 
were used, the exact line between the two could be traced 
by the difference in the growth and appearance of the 
vines. 

Such is the testimony of S. B. Phinney, of Barnstable, 
Mass., and its truth is corroborated by our experience in 
New Jersey. It is said " there are exceptions to all 
general rules ;" but we never knew of but one exception 
to the rule previously stated, that " cranberries cannot be 
successfully cultivated on the drift formation," and that 
was a small portion of a twelve-acre meadow near Med- 
ford, N. J., where the vines were flourishing: upon a soil 



'5 -^" • ".J 



containing sufiicient clay to make good moulding sand. 
But success in this instance was owinj? to the peculiar lo- 



28 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

cation of the soil, it bcinor situated on a slope which 
received suihcient s])ring-\vater to keep the ground always 
loose, or unpackeil, and somewhat of the nature of quick- 
sand. If this jiatch had been drained sufficiently to make 
the surface diy, and allow it to become packed, no doubt 
the vines would have failed, and perhaps perished. 

Clay and loam are to be avoided, unless occurring in 
small quantities mixed with sand or muck ; they then 
tend to decrease the yield and improve the quality of the 
fruit. Gravel is spoken of as belonging to the drift for- 
mation — this means gravel composed in part of clay, 
such as is used for road-making. 

There is a kind of gravel, however, composed of pebbles 
and beach san 1, belonging to the alluvial formation, 
which is well adapted to the growth of the vine. 

There exists also a variety of yellow sand, which, at 
first sight, appears to contain a portion of clay ; but if, 
upon being submitted to the test, it proves to be colored 
sand only, it may be used to good advantage in preparing 
the meadow. 

The test for sand or gravel to be used in cranberry 
culture is this : Take a portion of the soil and compress 
it tightly in the hand; if it is suitable, it \\ill fall 
apart upon being released ; but if composed in part of 
loam, it will adhere together after the pressure is removed. 

This is a simple but reliable test, and one much used by 
practical growers. We knew one instance of failure, 
where tho grower had planted his vines upon a soil that 
strongly resembled clear, white sand, but upon examination 
it was found to contain a large percentage of wiiite clay, 
which readily accounted for the failure. 

The cranberry flourishes in pure muck, but in it the 
growth is frequently so viirorous as to render the vines un- 
productive, as well as soft and pliable, indicating a defi- 
ciency of earthy matter in the soil. As stated in a previ- 
ous chapter, vines growing naturally in a swamp, are not 



CHOICE OF LOCATIONS, 29 

rooted directly in the muck bottom, but rest among the 
mosses above it — a twofold advantage being thus gained — 
for the phmts are not only lifted above the water during 
the growing season, but they are thereby prevented from 
making an over abundant growth. 
/ The soil best adapted to the production of cranberries 
^is an equal mixture of coarse sand and muck^ which is most 
certain to be obtained by covering well-decomposed muck 
with beach sand, the latter leaving a clean surface for the 
young plants ; while in a few years the two become thor- 
oughly incorporated, making, as it were, a soil of black 
sand. Could a soil of this composition be found in a state 
of nature, rightly situated as regards moisture, much ex- 
pense of sanding might be saved. 

Heath Ponds. 

Muck is frequently found to the depth of five or six 
inches in heath ponds^ or low basins, — places naturally 
flooded with water during winter. AVhen the muck in 
these ponds is underlaid with coarse, white sand, a 
cheap and valuable plantation m;iy bo made by plowing 
to the surface t wo inches of the silicious subsoil, and, at 
the same time, turning the muck under. 

Heath ponds are frequently underlaid with a very hard 
substratum, known as the " hard pan," which is almost 
impervious to water. It having acted an important part 
in the formation of the pond, care should be taken not to 
break through it while preparing for the vines, lest by so 
doing the surface of the ground be rendered too dry. 
One failure from this cause has come under our immediate 
observation. Figure 4 gives a section of a heath pond, 
showing the position of the different strata. 

In selecting a location, it is very important to observe 
the varieties of plants or trees existing upon the ground. 
Although no cranberry vines may be growing there, yet 



.".0 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

the presence of other plants, requiring similar conditions 
of soil and moisture, indicate a soil congenial to the 
growth of the cranberry. For instance, the Feather- 
leaf, also called Gander-bush, and Leather-leaf (Cassan- 
dra calyculata) (fig. 5), so abundant in heath ponds, is 
considered a sure indication of a proper locality. 

The Ground Laurel [Kalmia arxjxstifolhi) tlirives 
upon Innd that will produce cranberries — sometimes 
profitably — but such should not be chosen for a perma- 
nent meadow, it being generally too dry. Vines, planted 
upon these lands, become matted in a few years, produce 
one or two crops, and then assume a woody, or dead ap- 




Fig. 4.— SECTION OF HEATH POND, 

pearance, — and this is especially the case if they are not 
submerged during winter. 

A soil producing the Upland Huckleberry must always 
be avoided, as it becomes parched or dried up in summer. 

Swamp lands, upon which the White Cedar, or Juniper, 
the Maple, Swamp Huckleberry and Magnolia thri\e, arc 
frequently selected. It is in these that the deep deposits 
of muck are found, and, when properly prepared, they 
make lasting and valuable meadows. 

N. H. Bishop says: "Gum-swamp bottoms are to be 
avoided, as the presence of the gum-tree {J^yssa multi- 
flora) denotes a cold, springy soil, which would require an 



CHOICE OF LOCATIONS. 31 




Fig. 5.— FEATHER-LEAF— CASSANDRA CALTCULATA. 



32 



CRANBERRY CULTURE. 



expensive aTuount of drainage. The soil of gum-swamps 
seems to favor the production of more grass than any 
other swamp lands tliat we have prepared for the vines. 

"It is, however, a good sign to find gum-trees in abund- 
ance, growing at the heads of streams, and all their small 
tributaries, as it })romises an abundance of spring water 
that may be needed further down the valley." 

For the purposes of cranberry culture, it is always es- 
sential that swamps be surrounded by sand — coarse sand, 







t:^ 







AriJif/ 



'^fl, 



Fiff. 6.— SECTION OF SWAMP. 



if possible, it being less liable to pack than that which is 
finer. The section, fig. 6, shows a swamj) favorably situ- 
ated. 

Savannas, or groun<l lying between swamps and 
upland, are ofttimes turned to good account, but they 
contain a diversity of soils, which renders their selection 
a matter of care. 

For instance, we not unfrequently find in them heath 
ponds containing muck, ridges of black sand, and knolls 
of white sand. A Savanna is represented in section in 
figure 7. 



CHOICE OF LOCATIONS. 



33 



The best savannas are those which contam the most 
heath ponds, or have a uniform surface of deep, black 
sand. Of the methods of preparing the various kinds of 
soil, we will treat in the next chapter. 

MiLL-PoNDS have been made available by simply draw- 
ing off the water, and planting vines in their beds. 
Some, thus treated, have succeeded admirably, while 
others have failed. Joseph C. Hinchman, of Milford, 
IN. J., owns a meadow of this character, the bottom of 
which Consists of a mixtnre of sand' and muck, the latter 
predominqti"fi-. I* vvas planted in cranberry vines in 




H^,c7 I^'an 



Fig. 7.— SECTION OF SAVANNA. 



1865, and we are assured by the owner that its produc- 
tion of fruit increased every year for ten years. A portion 
of the surface was covered with sand, but that which was 
not has succeeded quite as well. In most cases, however, 
it will be found necessary to sand mill-pond bottoms, in 
order to obtain the proper conditions of soil. Hence, in 
selecting such locations, it is important to consider well 
the surroundings. Sand should be abundant, and deep ; 
and when this is the case, the surface will look barren, and 
the growth upon it will be somewhat scanty ; frequently 
consisting of pine, ground oaks, upland huckleberry 
bushes, etc. High banks and bold shores are desirable, 
on account of the spring water they aiford, which, when 
jDroperly controlled, becomes exceedingly valuable espe- 
cially in times of drouth. (See fig. 8.) 

The cranberry requires moisture always near the surface 



^^ CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

of the soil, but it is necessary that it circulate freely 
throuorli the orround ; as sta<nnint water is fatal to the 
growth of the phint. Tlierefore, in choosing a location, 
though everything else may be favorable, if you cannot 
drain the ground at least o?ie foot below tlie surface, re- 
ject it at once. This drainage is required to enable 'the 
water to pass readily through the soil, and avoid anything 
like stagnation. 

On true " Cranberry ground," although the diU'^^^ n^ay 
be cut one or two feet deep, tho soil rarely bc^ omes dr^/ 





S'oui d Sa n c/ 



Fili;. 8. — SECTION OF MILL-1'OND. 

more than half an inch below the surface, and this is as it 
should be. Water is essential, but it must he under coti- 
troL 

Small living streams are quite valuable for the purposes 
of winter flooding and summer irrigation ; lience, they 
should be duly considered in selecting the location. 

Ui'LAXDS are always to be avoided, whether of alluvial 
or drift formation, the objections to them being numerous; 
for instance, the vines upon dry lands are short lived, 
blossoms are blasted, and the fruit is dwarfed or badly 
worm eaten, the ravages of t\\G fruit worm being greatest 
upon dry soils ; of the fruit worm wc wMll speak more 
fully in the chapter devoted to " Enemies and Difficulties," 



PREPARING THE GROUND 35 

Portions of some cranberry meadows are impregnated 
with oxide of iron, and where this occurs, the soil has a 
tendency to form long, perpendicular crystals of ice in 
winter, which lift the roots of the vines entirely out of 
the ground. 

These places are objectionable ; for, although the heav- 
ing may be prevented by continued flooding in cold 
weather, it is quite common to have tlie water accidentally 
drained off, thus requiring young vines to be replanted, 
and seriously injuring those more matured. 

Pure muck, also, has^ the same objection ; it will heave 
the young vines out during the process of freezing and 
thawing, unkss covered with water or sand. Hence an- 
other advartage of sanding su(j1i bottoms; even one or 
two inches being sufli.jient to kefep the plants rooted. 

Coarse or flakey mucts are n<j>t good to retain moisture, 
neither do they absorb it from below in dry times; conse- 
quently, without irrigation, soils of this character sufier 
more from drouth than sand itself They also have a ten- 
dency to crack open in summer (unless covered with sand), 
much to the injury of plants growing upon them. 



CHAPTER 

PREPARING THE GROUND. 

Having selected a location, combining water, sand, and 
muck, in proper proportions, the next step is to prepare 
the ground for planting vines. And as the modus ope- 
randi is varied for the several locations, swamps, savan- 
nas, and mill-ponds, we will describe the "manner of pre- 
paring each separately. 



3G CKANBEEKY CULTURE. 

Should a swamp be the chosen spot, the first stej^ will 
be to cut a main ditch, to the depth of two feet below the 
surface of the muck underlying the turf and roots, and 
of sufficient width to prevent tlie surface becoming flood- 
ed after heavy rains. This drainage will enable the re- 
mainder of the work to be done more expeditiously, and, 
consequently, more cheaply. Next, remove the bushes or 
brush from the ground, to make room for the turfing-hoe. 
This may be done to best advantage in summer, while 
they are in full leaf, at which time the bushes should be 
cut down with a brier scythe, axe, or bill-hook, and left 




Fig. 9.--BILL-UO.)K. 

until the leaves are entirely dry. Figure 9 shows a bill- 
hook designed by James A. P'enwick, and is superior to 
the one in general use, the thick, heavy end rendering 
the cutting edge more effective. 

While the leaves are thus drying, the edges of the 
swamp should be turfed one or two rods in width to pre- 
vent the escape of fire, after which, with sufficient force 
for any emergency, the torch may be applied to the lee- 
ward, and the devouring element will not only consume 
the brush, but also a large poition of the dry turf in the 
bottom, thus causing the remainder to be more easily 
handled, and making the swamp present a much less for- 
midal^le appearance than before. 

After disposing of the bushes, the ground is to be 
" turfed," or " scalped," as it is sometimes called, that is, 
the turf and surface roots must be separated from the soil 
beneath, and turned over in pieces twelve or fourteen 
inches square, or of convenient sizt) for taking off, A 



PREPARING THE GROUND. 



sr 



turfing-ho<! is used for this purpose, made of plate-steel, 
about six iiiclies wide, and ten inclies loiifj. Before usino* 
the hoe, ho^.'ever, the dexterous workman cuts his turf in 
strips, twelv.^ inches wide, with a cleaver or ax. (See 
fig. 10.) The average cost of turfing is now twenty-five 
cents per square rod, or |40 per acre. The next step, 
after loosening the turf, is to remove it ; and to accomplish 
this, the " floats " may be conveyed to the shore, either 
on barrow^s or railroad cars, and used in constructinsr the 




Fig 10 —CUTTING AND PARING TURF. 

surrounding fence. Twenty-five cents per square rod is 
the price usually paid for "hauling off" the turf and 
building the fence, or wall. 

After freeing the ground from turf, the stumps should 
be cut off even Avith the surface, upon those portions of 
the meadow which are to be sanded, and removed en- 
tirely from tliose parts where the sand may be plowed up 
from beneath. 

Some of our successful growers consider it a waste of 
time and money to take up stumps, saying " the vines 



38 



CRANBERRY CULTURE. 



will run over them in course of time," which is very true, 
but the vines will not root in them unless tlx ir tops are 
very much decayed ; and whatever prevents the runners 
from rooting, is an injury to the meado\^, Avhether it 
be moss, surface roots, or stumps. But were there no 
other advantaije to be orained, the satisfaction of havino^ 
one's ground free from such eye-sores is worth the price 
of removing them, especially after the meadow becomes 
Avorth $1,000 per acre, ns many in this State now are. 
Should there be any live roots remaining near the surfxce 
— for instance, huckleberry or brier roots — they may be 
loosened with a grubbing-hoe, or large iron-toothed rake, 
and removed on wheel-barrows. 

Having disposed of the stumps and roots, we have now 
a clear surface of muck, with perhaps only one or two main 




Fh^. 11.— MAIN AND SIDIi DRAINS. 

ditches cut through it; but these would be very insuf- 
ficient for thoroughly di aining a large or wet swamp ; and 
in consideration of which side drains (fig. 11) must be dug 
of sufficient number and capacity to drain all parts of 
the meadow at least one foot, or, l)etter, eighteen inches 
below the surface. 

In many swamp bottoms it will be found necessary to 
cut these branch drains two rods apart throughout the 
entire lengtli of the meadow; their number, however, 
nnist depend upon the dampness of the ground, quantity 
of water to be carried off", etc. It will also be found neces- 
sary, at times, to dig good deep ditches along the edges, to 
regulate the spring water. The earth removed from the 
ditches, which wili, of course, be composed of muck, must 



PREPARING THE GROUND. 

be spread over the surface of the meadow, or removed to 
the upland, and then we are ready for the sand. This is 
generally taken from the edges of the swamp upon barrows 
and plank walks, where the swamp is narrow, and upon 
cars where the surface to be covered is extensive. The car 
track (fig. 12) is movable, and is made in sections, each of 
which consists of two 4 x 4-inch pieces, fourteen feet long, 
securely fastened together, and bound with strips of iron 
one-fourth of an inch in thickness, to serve as " rails." In 



3 S' s^ 




Fig-. I'i.— SANDING A MEADOW. 

most cases, it will be found advantageous to place wide 
boards under the ends of the sections where they come in 
contact, to prevent them from settling in the muck. The 
track is laid from the shore to any given point in the mead- 
ow, and one, or perhaps two, light dump cars placed 
thereon. If two, they are loaded simultaneously at the 
shore with clean sand, free from all roots or loam, and 
pushed out by the men to the required spot, where the 
sand is dumped on either side of the track, and spread 
evenly over the muck. This operation is repeated until 



40 CRAXBERRY CULTURE. 

tiie surface is covered on both sides of the track, when 
the railroad is moved to another place, and sand leveled 
over the place where it rested. 

It requires some judgment to determine the proper 
deptli for the sand, wiiich will vary according to the 
quantity of muck, and character of the bottom — most 
sand being required on those meadows containing tliQ 
deepest muck, for the reason th.it an inch or two only, 
upon a deep, soft bed of muck, woukl settle down, and 
be lost in the black mass beneath. Therefore, where the 
muck is six or eight feet deep, let sand be put on to the 
depth of five or six inches ; but where it is only a foot 
or two thick, two or three inches of sand will be sufficient. 
The price for sanding will vary with the width of the 
meadow and the quantity put on — ranging from $>50 to 
$150 per acre, for putting it on from one to four inches in 
depth. 

Another method of disposing of tlie turf and sanding 
meadows was adopted, a year or two since, by John 
Pointsett, the energetic manager of aifairs at " Cranberiy 
Park.'' His method is, in some respects, superior to that 
just descril)e<l. 

After turfing the ground, he had the floats thrown up 
in windrows, leaving a cleared space of about two rods 
in width between them. He then dug pits, where the 
muck was not more thnn two feet thick, and threw out 
tlie clean, white sand from beneath, after which the track 
was laid, and the sand carried out and spread over the 
surface, while the turf was brought back, on the return 
trips, and packed in the pits. 

When the excavations were nearly filled up with debris, 
the muck which had previously been removed to uncover 
the sand was thrown back, leveled, and covered like the 
remainder, so that one could not tell where the holes had 
been by any unevenness in the surface. It is essential, in 



PREPARING THE GROUND. 41 

this method, t]int the turf \)e packed in the ])its as tightly 
as possible, to ixnard against settling. 

Sand from beneath muck is free from seeds of weeds, 
etc. The line con Id be traced between the sand from be- 
low, and that from along the shore by the growth of 
weeds upon the latter. 

Mr. Poinsetts' plan is less expensive, since neither 
sand nor turf is to be carried so far. One hundred dol- 
lars per acre were paid for removing the turf and spreading 
on sand two inches in thickness. When the turf is thus 
disposed of, a surrounding wooden fence must be built. 

The summer months are most favorable for preparing 
cranberry ground ; since as there is but little water to in- 
terfere at that time, the work may be pushed forward 
rapidly. From the 1st of December to the 25th of March 
bog work cannot usually be performed economically, on 
account of the frost and water wliich prevail at that sea- 
son, impeding the progress of the workmen. 

The present plan of clearing swamps is, to cut down 
the trees and bushes, build a dam, and flood for two 
years. This so destroys the vegetation that the vines 
may frequently be planted at once. 

Heath Pokds. 

Heath ponds are prepared in much the same manner as 
swamps. The necessary ditches are first cut, the ground 
is then turfed, and the turf removed. If the sand under- 
lying the muck is within reach of the plow, the bottom 
will be comparatively firm, and the turf may be " hauled 
oflf" to good advantage with a pair of horses, attached 
to an ordinary farm wagon ; and the proper soil for the 
berries may be obtained by bringing to the surface, with 
a plow, an inch or two of the white subsoil. 

When tlie muck is a little too deep to enable the plow 
to work the sand up, a system of trenching may be re- 
sorted to, as shown in fig. 13. Let the turf be thrown up 



42 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

ill the form of wiiulrows by pitching it one rod each way, 
thus clearino: a space two rods in width; then cut a ditch 
near the row of turf, and throw the muck on the side 
next the turf, and the sand on the cleared surface, where 
it is to be spread about, as at A, fig. 13. 

After the sand is tlirown out, the ditch should be ] tack- 
ed nearly full of turf, the muck leveled over it, and the 
whole carefully covered w^ith sand, as at B, fig, 13. 
Enough ditches must be left open to thoroughly drain the 
meadow. 

Perhaps there will be a surplus of turf after filling the 
ditches, if so, remove it with the car and track, or wheel- 




Fig. 13.— TRENCHING FOR SAND. 



barrow and ])lanks. Wheels should never come in contact 
witli the surface after sanding, for the obvious reason that 
they would press the sand out of sight. 

Wlien the muck in the heath pond is very deep, the sand 
must be brought from the edges, as described for swamps. 

In clearing cranberry ground, the turf is always to be 
removed, excepting where it consists of grass only, grow- 
ing as it frequently does, upon some deep muck bed, or old 
swamp bottom whose sturdier growth has been consumed 
by fire in past ages, only leaving the imbedded logs and 
stumps to remind us of its former existence. These 
locations may be cheaply prej^ared by bending the grass 
down, and covering it with six inches of sand. If this is 
done in midsummer, while it is growing freely, the grass 
will be totally destroyed, and the expense of "turfing" 
and " hauling ofi"" be saved. Care should be taken, how- 
ever, before sanding, to remove all fern roots and bushes, 



PREPAMNG THE GKOU^fD. 



43 



otherwise they will grow up, and be a continual source 
of annoyance. 

The cost of clearing and sanding swamps and heath 
ponds for cranberries varies from $175 to $6( per acre, 
depending upon the size and roughness of the bog, depth 
of sand, etc. 

Savannas. 

This term is given to the medium lands, so to speak, be- 
ing midway between swamps and uplands. Their surfaces 
are more or less undulating, and the character of their soil 
quite varied. The knolls or higher portions, having been 








Mumm^ 



Fig. 14.— SPHAGNUM MOSS AND CRANBEKKIE3. 

leached by the rains, are deficient in vegetable matter, 
while in the basins or lower parts, the accumulation of 
water and wash from the knolls has gradually assisted in 
the formation of a muck deposit, supporting a rank growth 
of Sphagnum and Feather-leaf 

The jjlant producing muck most rapidly is the sphag^ 
7iymmoss j growing luxuriantly in boggy or wet places, 
it possesses the property of increasing at the top, while at 
the same time its lower extremities are decaying and 
blending with the dark soil below. The nourishment for 
the plant is derived principally from the air and water. 

As in clearing swamps, savannas must first be ditched 



44 CRANBERRY CTTLTtTRE. 

and then t irfed. For cutting the turf in strips to prepare 
it for the 1 >e, an ordinary cleaver may be used ; or, to ac- 
coni]>lish tie work more expeditiously, use a tool (fig. 15) 
made in tl e following manner ; viz : fix a stout, sliarp 
coulter in a tfenm, with handles and clevis attached ; and 
let it he drawn through the turf by a horse, the length of 
the blade being properly adjusted to cut to the required 
depth. 

Some prefer the coulter to incline backward, that it may 
slide over large roots, but when in that position, the ten- 
dency is to raise out, and it requires considerable piessure 
to keep it to its Mork. 

In order to dispose of the turf after being separated 
from the soil, we have sometimes heaped up and burned 




Fig. 15. — TURF CUTTER. 

that grown on the lower portions of the meadow; on the 
higher parts, the turf generally contains too much sand 
to burn freely. The ground may be cleared more cheaply 
in this way, but the effect of ashes upon the soil is to pro- 
duce a growth of Tree-moss (Polytr'ahinn commune)^ 
which, when abundant, is a serious injury to the vines, in 
that it keeps the runners lifted above the ground, and 
prevents them from rooting. Upon spots where heaps of 
turf have been burned, moss frequently comes in, even 
after plowing ; but if the ashes are spread on the surface, 
and ])lowed under, no injury will result from them. 

Ashes have also a fertilizing effect upon the cranberry 
vines ; this fact induced us to spread them, several years 
ago, upon the surface of a sandy knoll^ where the vines 



PREPARING THE GROUND. 45 

were not thriving, but the damage resulting from the 
growth of moss overbalanced any benefit derived from 
the ashes. 

The " Pines " of Xew Jersey are subject to devastating 
fires, which sweep through tiiem during the drouths of 
summer, doing an immense amount of injury to growing 
timber, and frequently jeopardizing the turf fences which 
surround the numerous cranberry meadows in that region. 

When the fire is once in a turf fence, it is almost im- 
possible to extinguish it, the only remedy being to cut a 
wide gap in the fence, to save that which is not on fire, 
and let the burning portion gradually smoulder away. 

A portion of the fence surrounding Howard White's 
fifteen-acre meadow, near Xew Lisbon, took fire in August, 
1869, and continued burning for two months, although a 
number of heavy storms occurred during that time. 

Fires in the " Pines " often originate from "coalings," or 
are started by men desiring a winter's job at chopping the 
dead timber. As the smoke looms uj), it is seen by some 
one in the country who recognizes it as being in the di- 
rection of his " tract," and hastens to the spot, where, 
with the assistance of the inhabitants, he endeavors to im- 
pede its progress by firing against it, or by throwing sand. 
When a native of the pine region starts out to " fight 
fire," he as naturally takes with him his shovel and 
matches as the city fireman does his hose-carriage or 
engine. The extinguishing effect of sand, when thrown 
upon the fiames, is quite equal to that of water. 

These fires sometimes burn with sufticient fury to con- 
sume all the turf on portions of savannas over which 
they pass ; and where this is the case, the moss starts up 
very luxuriantly. As a general rule, in clearing savan- 
nas, it is best not to burn the turf upon the ground, but 
to cart it oiF, and build with it a fence around the meadow. 

A turf fence, when properly constructed, bears some 
resemblance to a " dry wall " of stone. In order to build 



40 



CRANBERRY CULTURE. 



one, first ascertain where it is to be put, then mark the 
inner line of the fence Avith numerous stakes, after which 
decide upon its width, or tliiekness, which will vary ac- 
cording to the quantity of turf to be used up — from four 
to six feet — the average height being from five to eight 
feet. Having determined the width, set up another row 
of stakes parallel with the first, to indicate the outer line, 
and then build the wall u}) })erpendicularly between the 
two. Care should be taken to keep the top of the fence 




Fi<; 16 — «vLrTi()\ or \ ti \\\ fcnce 

level, and to hind on the outer tier of floats by lai)ping 
the second row a little over them ; this will make the 
structure firm and dui-able. (See fig. 16.) 

The fork that we have found most convenient for 
handlmg turf is one made from an ordinary two-tined 
hay-fork, by simply cutting off the tines to about eight 
inches in lengtli, bending them to the })roper shape, and 
securmg them in a manure-fork handle. (See fig. 16.) 
This handle is very efticient in placing the turf on the 
wall, it being quite an improvement upon the straight one 
so frequently used. 

While the fences are being built, it is best to make ar- 
ranirements for flooding the meadow, as it may require a 
different arrangement of walls to protect the dani. (See 



PREPARING THE GKOUND. 47 

chapter on Flooding.) Having disposed of the turf, the 
next step is to take out all sound stumps and live roots, 
as described for clearing swamps, after which the surface 
may need some leveling ; for instance, a pond, A, fig. 7, 
containing muck may be in proximity to a ridge, B, of 
sterile sand ; if so, the knoll must be cut down, and the 
sand used for covering the muck ; this will make the gen- 
ral surface more level, and require less water to flood it. 
It will be quite important, however, to return some of the 
muck to the poor soil on the ridge, where it should be 
thickly spread about, and plowed under. 

But if the deposit of muck in the pond is not deep 
enough to require sanding, in most cases it will not pay 
to level the ground, for the reason that the sand, if spread 
too thickly in the pond, would injure it, and the knoll 
from whence the sand was tj^ken be left too poor to pro- 
duce fruit. 

In all' these operations good judgment and skill are re- 
quired to bring the meadow into the best possible condi- 
tion for the vines. 

In some instances, clay or loam is found underlying a 
thin stratum of muck. Where this occurs, the subsoil 
should not be brought to the surface ; but if sand is not 
convenient for covering it, plant the vines upon the 
cleanly raked surface of the muck without plowing. 
When this is done, the meadow must be flooded in winter 
to prevent heaving. 

We recently visited a savanna Avhere the vines had 
been planted upon an inch or two of muck ; they were 
exposed to the weather, and were badly thrown out by 
the action of frost. When only a thin covering of muck 
rests upon a bed of sand, it is best either not to plow at 
all, or very slightly, turning up only an inch of the sand. 

After plowing savannas, it is necessary to give the 
ground a thorough harrowing, to level any irregularities 



48 



CRANBERRY CULTURE. 



that may exist, and also to loosen the roots and bring 
them to the surface. 

Some growers think it best to leave the roots upon the 
surface, saying, " when they decay, the soil will be in- 
creased in fertility." But we cannot afford to use such 
expensive fertilizers as roots and sticks, for the reason 
tliat, if they are left in the soil, some of them will grow: 





Fii;. 17. — PLANTS ON CLEAN AND KOOTY SUUFACES. 

and if upon the top, they will seriously interfere with the 
matting vines by keeping tlie runners from rooting. Fig- 
ure 17 illustrates the difference between a rooty surface 
and one made pei-fectly clean. 

Savannas, with sand within reach of the plow, may 
be very cheaply prepared by throwing the turf, one rod 
each way, into windrows, and ])lanting vines upon the 
cleared ground between them. (See fig. 18.) 

The wash from the decaying turf is found to act as a 
good fertilizer, and the embankments serve as a protec- 



=^^h,j*»JlL^aL^)tJc.^^ 




ite^^v^.,^,,^.^ 



Fii^. 18. — PLANTING IN STHIPS. 

tion against the blasts of v/inter, in situations not suscep- 
tible of being flooded. 

MiLL-PoNDS. 



Success in cultivating the cranberry on mill-pond bot- 
toms depends, perhaps, more upon the location than upon 



PREPARIXG THE GROUND. 49 

tlie manner of preparing the ground. But, however favor- 
able the location, if the bottom is not completely drained 
and well managed, it will fail to produce good results. 
One great source of failure is imperfect drainage. 

Mill-pond bottoms require no turfing; the standing water 
having destroyed the growth of bushes, etc., since none 
but aquatic plants can exist when entirely submerged. 

If the soil is about an equal mixture of sand and muck, 
no extra sand wall be required ; but should the bottom 
consist of muck alone, it must be covered, and to accom- 
plish this, several methods have been adoj^ted ; for instance, 
the swamp may be flooded, and the sand taken out upon 
rafts and thrown into the water, stakes being used to 
mark wiiere it is deposited. Or, it may be s[)read evenly 
over the surface of the ice in winter, and, when the ice 
thaw^s the bottom will be well sanded. 

Railroad cars and tracks are used to advantage in cov- 
ering extensive tracts; but the cheapest and most expedi- 
tious method that has come to our notice was one adopted 
by Jos. C.Hinchman, the practicability of which he proved 
by thoroughly covering wdth sand a mill-pond, containing 
eighty acres, in a few weeks, with the assistance of two 
or three men. 

Water was the vehicle used to carry the sand, and to 
utilize it the stream was dammed near the head of the 
swamp, which caused the water to flow in raceways con- 
structed upon each side of the meadow. He then com- 
menced at the lower end, and, by turning all the w^ater 
into one channel, succeeded in washing away high knolls, 
or banks, and depositing the sand evenly over the surface 
of the meadow. The secret of success seemed to lie in 
keeping the channel in form — like the arc of a cftcle — at 
the place where the washing w^as going on, and to do this 
was the principal work of his assistants. 

The banks of this mill-pond contained more or less 
clay in combination with the sand, and, had they been 
3 



50 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

Spread over the siirfiice in the usual way, the probabilities 
are that the undertaking would have resulted in foilure. 
But during the process of sanling with the aid of water, 
tlie clay was washed out and carried down stream, giving 
the water an ochreous hue for several miles below, thus 
leaving the sand in good condition for the vmes. 



CHAPTER V. 
PLANTING THE VINES. 

The surface of the meadow being thoroughly pre- 
pared, the question arises, When, and how, shall I set 
out tlie vines ? 

W« know of no })articular time, better than all others, 
for planting the vines ; but in spring, from the first of 
April to the first of June, is the proper season in New 
Jersey. They may be put out even later than this in the 
New England States. It is consideied liere that vines, 
set out after the first of June, are but little better than 
those planted the following spring. The cranberry vine 
is exceedingly hardy, and will live, in its proper soil, 
under treatment that would be fatal to almost ahy other 
plant. We have seen vines live, transplanted even in June 
)vhile in blossom, and in July with berries on them. 

Indeed, some growers being late in making their 
ground ready, have put out many acres of vines during 
these months; but, in most cases, it is very unwise to do 
so, since more or less of the plants will perish from ex- 
posure to the scorching suns of midsummer, or from 
being put on ground deficient in moisture, while those 
surviving make little or no giowth until the next year. 



PLAXTIXG THE VINES. 51 

Fall planting is recommended by some, but this season 
of the year is no better than early spring. Those, how- 
ever, having more ground pi-epared than they can put out 
properly in the spring, will do well to plant the higlier 
portions of the meadow in autumn, being careful to avoid 
any low places containing clear muck, the freezing and 
thawing of which would heave out tlie young vines. 

The best mode of planting cranberry vines is a point 
upon which "doctors disagree;" therefore, to enable each 
one to select for himself, we will describe the various 
methods in use, and call attention to those which have 
answered us best. 

1st. Sod Planting consisted in taking, from their na- 
tive marshes, sods containing cranberry vines, moss, turf, 
etc., and depositing tliem at regular or irregular distances 
upon the pre]>ared or unprepared meadow, as the case 
might be. If the meadow was piepared, holes were made 
to receive the i^ods ; if not, they were simply thrown upon 
the surface, among the grass, etc., and left to take their 
chances. This was one of the earliest plans, originating, 
perhaps, from a desire not to disturb the roots of the 
plant ; but there being many and serious objections to 
this method, it has long since been discarded. 

2d. Hill Planting was an improvement upon the sod 
system in one respect; viz., bunches of cleati vines were 
used, free from the roots of other plants. The ground 
was marked out in drills about two feet a[)art each way, 
and a handful of vines planted at each intersection; but 
large bunches of vines have a tendency to dry up and 
become woody, thus seriously injuring the plantation. 
This difficulty induced some cultivators to adopt the ex- 
pedient of planting in funnel-shaped holes, made by rota- 
ting a sharp stick or dibble ; the vines are placed in these 
holes, and scattered around so that, when the center is 
filled with sand, they will be spread out, pointing in all 



52 



CRAXBEllRY CULTDk^:. 



directions (see fig. 19) ; dead bunches are thus avoided; 
but this i>lan is not generally adopted, it being more ex- 
pensive and less satisfactory than some others. 

3d. Plaxtixg IX Drills. — Upon all soils which require 
no sanding, but are susceptible of being prepared with 







one 



Fig. 19.— PLANTING IN HILLS. 

the j.low, the hest method is to "strike out" the ground 
with a i)low in rows, three feet apart, and scatter the 
ines thinly, but evenly, along the furrow, putting only 
or two in a place. They should be leaned up against 
the " land side," projecting four or five inches above the 
surface, after which the hoe is required to fill up the fur- 
row, and tlioroughly cover the roots. (See fig. 20.) Care 
should be taken to pull a portion of sand upon the vines, 
in order to bend them down upon the surface, as shown 
in fig. 21. 

This causes them to sucker up and grow more luxuri- 



PLANTING THE VINES. 



53 



antiy tlian when left standing upright, to be swayed by 
the winds. 

The labor of planting vines is generally performed by 
women ; one, taking a bundle under her arm, drops the 



'1 




'.m^- 



Fig. 20.— K.ANTING IN DRILLS. 

vines in the drills, while another follows after her with a 
hoe. The average price paid the w^omen is 75 cents each 
per day ; the whole cost of making the furrows, dropping 
and covering the vines, amounts to about $8 per acre. 
In sttiking out cranberry ground w^ith a plow, it is im- 




-PROPEK POSITION OF VINES. 



portant to have the land sides of the furrow as nearly as 
possible the same way ; and this may be done by going 
down one side of the me.idow and np tlie other, or by 



54 CRANBERRY CULTrRE. 

striking it out in " lands," letting tlie plow run out at the 
ends. The object in doing this is to obtain a uniform 
distance between tlie rows. 

If the furrows were made in the same manner as for 
corn or potatoes, and the vines di'opped on the Umd side, 
the work, when finished, would look very irregular, pre- 




Fii;-. "J:!— INCOURECTLY PLANTi;i). 

senting an appearance somewhat like that represented in 
fig. 22. When correctlv planted, the vines ap[)ear as in 
fig. 23. 

The quantit}' of vines required to plant an acre is ten 
birrels, the cost at present being -^."i per barrel. If sent 
to a distance, the expense of freight and barrels would 
be additional. Upon soils dispose* 1 to become foul with 
grass, more vines are necessary, V)ecause they have the 
weeds and grass to contend with; and the greater their 
numbers, the more complete will be their victory. 

But if more than ten barrels per acre are needed, they 
should be put on by diminishing the distance between 

^^ ^. ^"^^ ^J^" ^^^' ^-^-^ 

Fi^-. 23.— COKRECTLT PLANTED. 

the rows, and not by incieasing the number of vines in a 
l>lace, as the }>lants die if crowded. It is best, in most 
cases, to use a moderate supply of vines for planting ; 
they then form a new and even mat over the groutul. 

When they are placed in rows, although the interme- 
diate spaces may become entirely matted, the rows Avill 
remain visible, and serve as valuable guides to the pick- 
ers, each one taking the space between two of them. 

4th. Plaxti.vg by Pressure is, perhaps, the best mode 
of putting out vines upon all soils, prepared by spreading 



PLANTING THE VINES. 55 

sand over muck. This is accomplished by first marking 
out the ground, fourteen inches apart, with a small sled, 
having three runners ; the vines are then dropped on 
these marks, about two in a place, and fourteen inches 
a])art, and pressed into the ground w^ith a spade-like tool, 
placed on the vines about one-fourth the distance from 
root to top. We have used a forked stick for the same 
purpose ; but the blade is an improvement, it being more 
easily foiced into the soil, and when removed, it leaves no 
hole around the plants to dry their roots. It is important 
that the vines should be pressed in at an inclination, thus 




Fii;-. '^4.— PLANTi\(; i>v i'iM;ssri;i::. 

bringing the tops near the ground, and causing them to 
sucker up better than when pressed down perpendicularly, 
for the reason previously given in drill planting. Figure 
24 shows this manner of planting. The roots of the 
vines should be brought into close ]>roximity with the 
muck below", that they may be stimulated to grow more 
rapidly. Women may be allowed to drop vines in this 
way, but they should never be chosen for pressing them 
into the ground. As a leaning posture is required, their 
skirts have a tendency to drag the vines out of place and 
waste them. 

Covering the a ines with sand was tried, a few years 
since, by Theodce Budd, an enterprising cranbeiry 



56 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

grower, of Burlington Co., New Jersey. He first spread 
the vines evenly over the suiflice of the meadow, and then 
entirely covered tliem with sand — putting it on al)out one 
inch thick. The young shoots came up through this cov- 
ering as thick as wheat, and made an excellent growth, 
quickly matting the whole surface. This method requires 
more vines than the two last named, but by ndopting it, 
a crop will be produced sooner than by planting in any 
other way. 

The vines must not be spread far ahead of the men 
who are covering them, lest they be injured by the sun 
and wind, although they will endure as much exposure as 
most hardy plants. 

Sowing Cuttings may be done successfully, a fact 
which go 'S far toward establishing a reputation of hardi- 
ness for the cranberry vine. The vines are passed through 
a straw-cutter, and chopped in pieces about one inch 
long; they are then sown like oats, upon an evenly pre- 
pared surface, and liarrowed in. It is essential that this 
be done very early in the spring, and upon moist land, so 
as to enable the cuttings to become well rooted before 
the heats of summer. A patch put out in this way may 
be seen on the grounds of Shinn & Allston, near Turkey- 
town, N. J., in a thriving condition, but this system is not 
recommended for general culture. 

Great care should be taken, in selecting the vines, to 
procure those which yield large berries ; the shape of the 
fruit is of little consequence ; tlie great desideratum 
being, as previously stated, to ()l)tain l)erries of (/ood size 
and color. 

As it is impossible to judge from the appearance of a 
cranberry vine what shape oi- size its fruit will be, it is 
best either to become accjuainted with the quality of the 
vines before using them, or to ]>' 5 them of reliable 

parties. Even wi; t would be diffi- 

cult to obtain a larg« i .cing ben i 



MANAGEMENT OF MEADOAVS. 57 

uniform shape or size ; but a good class of vines may be 
supplied in large quantities from many well established 
cultivated meadows in New Jersey. 

More care is needed among cultivators of the cranberry 
in j^ropagating valuable varieties. There is no reason 
why We should not have a " Triumph of America," or an 
" Early Wilson " among cranberiies as well as among 
strawberries or blackberries. Large red cianberries are 
certainly the most valued in the city markets, and by 
planting this variety only, upon our meadows, tlie profits 
might be increased. 

But it must be admitted by all, that successful cranberry 
culture depends not so much upon the variety of vines as 
upon the soil in which they are planted, and the manage- 
ment afterward. 

Attempts have been made to grow them from the seed ; 
but owing to the longer time required for the vines to be- 
come profitable, and the increased expense of keeping 
them clean, this system has been abandoned for general 
culture. 

New seedling varieties may be obtained by planting 
the seeds, near the surface, in a soil composed of three 
parts sand and one part muck. This should be in a warm 
situation, and kept always slightly moist while the plants 
are young. 



CHAPTER VI. 

MANAGEMENT OF MEADOWS. 

After the vines are properly set out, the next considera- 
tion is to get them matted over the ground as quickly as 
possible, in order that they may yield a full crop, and re- 
ward the grower for the labor and care bestowed upon 
them. Indeejd^it is no uncojimiocutjiing for thejfirst^j^d/^^ 



58 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

crfjf)--o£--Cian,b^n-ief^ to pay for iill tlie exp.ense_Qf purchas- 
ing, ]>reparirig, and si^iting out tlio land. 

But, until the vines are matted, one very important rule 
must be observed, viz : Keep the meadow thoroughly 
drained^ at least one foot below the surface. It will 
generally be found necessary to go deeper th.in that to effect 
a thorough drubiuge^ without which the vines will not 
thrive, even if planted on ground well adapted to their 
giowth. By allowing the meadow to remain very wet, 
the vines may be almost ])revented from growing at all. 

When properly drained, a good meadow will become 
matted in three years, although so?ne of the most perma- 
nent plantations have required a longer time to come into 
full bearing, owing to the dampness of the soil. 

For two or three years after i)utting out the vines, it is 
best to keep the ground free from grass and weeds, that 
the plants may have undisputed possession. During the 
first year a hoe may be used ; but afterward, the grass 
must be pulled by hand, or taken out with a trowel, to 
avoid loosening the runners which are rooted in the soil. 
This weeding l)y liand, may sound like a very foimidable 
undertaking, but generally it is not, since the turf has 
been all removed, and poor sand is not very encouraging 
to the development of j^lant life. It should be done in 
August, before the weeds go to seed. 

For two years past, it has cost only i2.50 an acre per 
annum, to clean " our 20-acre meadow," and next season 
the expense will not be so great, as the vines are becom- 
ing well matted over the ground. 

Some growers assert that it is not necessary to dig uj^ 
rushes, claiming that the vines will, in time, root them out, 
provided they are mowed off every season, to ])revent the 
formation of seeds. 

Experience has taught us that it does not pay to remove 
the '' Double-seeded Millet " from newly prepared bogs. 
This (fig. 25) is an annual, producing seed under ground 



MANAGEMENT OF MEADOWS. 



59 




Fig. 25. — DOUBLE-SEEDED MILLET. — {Auiphicarpum FursJiii.) 



60 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

ns well as above. It makes its appearance on savannas 
and heath ponds directly after tlie ground is broken, al- 
though, perliaps, not a specimen was visible before. Dur- 
ing tlie first year its growth is vigorous, and somewhat 
alarming ; the next, it comes up from the seeds again, but 
does not grow so luxuriantly; and the third season, al- 
though the seeds germinate, the plants have a sickly, yel- 
low appearance, and most of them fiiil to perfect their 
fruit ; after this they almost entirely disappear. 

In alluding to cranberry meadows. Dr. J. Gibbons Hunt, 
a well-known naturalist of Philadelphia, says: "A very 
curious grass comes up in these bogs after the turf h;is 
been removed. It has tufted, flat, lanceolate leaves, cloth- 
ed with bristly hairs. It flowers both above and under the 
ground. Botanists call it Millet-grass, or Ainjyhlcaiyimi 
Purshii. The aerial flower is borne on a loose bi-anching 
panicle, with iVuit rarely ripening. Below the soil subterra- 
nean jX'duncles l)ranch ofl" from the roots, bearing on their 
ends perfect, solitary flowers, which are followed by ma- 
ture fruit. Thus a double life seems to be given to this 
humble grass, and, for a weary time, like Patience herself, 
it has been waiting and flowering beneath the turf, plant- 
ing its unseen and unsunned seeds. '^ Another species of 
Amphicarjjnm has been discovered in Florida on the 
banks of the Ajialachicola Eiver by Doctor Chapman, 
who named it Ampldcarpuin Floridanum. It has similar 
subterranean flowers, and is a more robust plant, with 
a more creeping habit than the northern species. 

Tlie millet does but little injury to the vines, as it gradu- 
ally decreases as they increase and have need fjr the 
ground, Laige sums of money, perhaps thousands of dol- 
lars, have l>een unnecessarily expended in removing this 
grass from cranberry meadows. 

Mill-pond bottoms sometimes become very grassy after 
the cranberry vines are ]>lanted, yielding, occasionally, a 
ton of hay per acre, and presenting an appearance rather 



MANAGEMENT OF MEADOAVS. 61 

discouraging to the novice ; he should not despair if the 
vines are on a situation adapted to them ; the grass may 
be overcojne witliout hand pulling, by simply mowino- it 
off in summer, to prevent its going to seed, and then 
keej)ing the Avater up late in the spring — say until about 
the first of June. 

This late flooding is quite destructive to the grass, 
without being injurious to the young vines, which start 
off vigorously when the pond is drained, and make good 
use of the advantage they have gained. 

Josepli Plinchman succeeded in subduing the grass 
upon his most valuable meadow by summer mowing and 
late spring flooding. 

Thorough drainage is required to obtain a growth of 
vines ; but after the mat is completed, there are certain 
times when considerable moisture is necessary to insure a 
good crop ; for instance, during a season like that of 1869, 
when a drouth, occurring in June, blasted fifty per cent 
of the blossoms upon most plantations ; on meadows 
naturally moist, and on those which were irrigated by 
raising the water in numerous ditches, the loss \\ as much 
less. Again, there are other advantages in having a 
moist surface (not surface water), while the fruit is grow- 
ing ; viz : it causes the late formed beriies, of which there 
are always more or less, to grow up to the full size, when, 
without moisture, they would come to naught ; and it also 
checks the lavages of the fruit worm. 

But where irrigation is resorted to, care must be taken 
to lower the water in the ditches by the middle of August, 
that the vines may be enabled to make a good fall 
growth. If this is not done, the crop of the coming year 
may be seriously damaged. The fruit-buds are formed in 
the fall, and are visible at the ends of the new growth on 
the upright branches. 

The Management or Improvement of Natural 
Bogs is worthy of our consideration. James A. Fen wick. 



62 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

one of the most successful operators upon natural bogs 
in New Jersey, says : " They must be drained gradu- 
ally and carefully at first, to enable the vines to settle by 
degrees, and become well established upon a firm founda- 
tion." 

As before stated, cranberry vines, in their normal con- 
dition, frequently grow among sphagnum moss, some 
distance above the solid muck ; and when this moss is 
suddenly made dry by ditching, the vines are liable to 
perish before they become rooted in the muck. Hence 
the necessity of draining carefully at first, although, in 
time, the bog may be completely drained. 

Where sand is accessible, under a natural meadow, the 
vines may be greatly improved by digging trenches two 
rods apart, and spreading the sand among the grass and 
vines. Even muck, taken from trenches where sand could 
not be reached, and spread over the surface, lias benefited 
vines growing on muck bottoms. J. A. Fen wick states 
that, from $100 spent in trenching and sanding natural 
vines, he was benefited to the amount of $1,000. 

Natural ra.eadow8 require flooding every winter as well 
as those uiider cultivation. 

Fertilizers. 

Many attempts have been made to increase the growth 
of the cranberry vine by using fertilizers ; but, as yet, 
nothing has been found so good, in all respects, as swamp 
muck. 

All tbe necessary elements, excepting those obtained 
from air and water, are contained in sand and muck, and, 
as pieviously stated, the proper soil is a mixture of the 
two. If muck is in excess, it should be diluted with sand; 
and if sand is overabundant, it may be enriched with 
muck. Even after the vines have been planted upon poor 
soil, a top-dressing of muck will greatly improve them. 



MANAGEMENT OF MEADOWS. 63 

Peruvian guano causes a wonderful growth of vines, 
and, in some cases, might prove beneficial if applied with 
care, but little guano being required. 

Ashes, provided they are spread on the ground before 
plowing, may be profitably used where muck is deficient. 

Lime, marl, and stable manare might improve the 
vines, but, since they have a tendency to bring m weeds 
and grass, we would not recommend their use. 

Mud deposits, formed by the washing of lich uplands, 
are so productive of grass, etc., that successful cranberry 
culture upon them would be exceedingly uncertain, such 
is the character of many of our river marshes and mead- 
ows, subject to tidal influence ; and it is very doubtful 
whether sufiicient drainage to grow cranberries could be 
obtained by diking, ditching, and building sluice gates, 
as is done in reclaiming grass lands. 

Floodino; miofht be resorted to under such circumstances 
for subduing the grass, but these situations are not con- 
sidered desirable, and the chances of success would not 
warrant one in sj^ending large sums of money upon them 
without first testing tlie ground in a small way. 

Unlike most other agricultural productions, cranberry 
vines, growing upon land adapted to them, require no 
expenditures for manure or tilling to keep them in good 
condition. When once established, they will last for 
years, yielding good returns as regularly as ordinary farm 
crops. 

These facts, in connection with the high price of the 
fruit, render cranberry culture a most remunerative busi- 
ness. 

It requires a very considerable expenditure of labor 
and money to start the business, and after that, much pa- 
tience to reap the reward ; but Avhen once a good meadow 
comes into bearing, he who owns it may congratulate 
himself upon possessing something that is pleasant to 
look after, and profitable withal. 



64 CK AN J JERKY CULTUllE. 

CHAPTER VII. 

FLOODING. 

It is now admitted by all, that winter flooding is desira- 
ble, and, in most cases, essential to successful cranberry 
culture, although some plantations have been renmnera- 
tive without it. Flooding is necessary to itisure perma- 
nence to tlie vines, and protection against the ravages of 
insects. 

Savannas are generally looked upon as being less per- 
manent than swamp bottoms; but we know of no instance 
of vines " running out," even on savannas where winter 
flooding has been resorted to ; on the contrary, worn out 
meadows have been renewed by building dams about 
them, and raising the water to cover the vines duiing 
winter and early spring. 

Flooding not only prevents injury from the cold blasts 
of winter, and destroys insects and their eggs, but the 
water has also an important fertilizing efi*ect, which is 
particularly valuable if the plantation is deficient in 
muck. Streams flowing through cedar swamps, or rich 
muck bottoms, become freighted with minute particles of 
vegetable matter, which gradually settle to the bottom 
of the pond, and form a fine top-dressing for the vines. 

Young plantations should not be flooded until the third 
winter after planting, unless the vines are infeste<l with 
worms, or the ground is disposed to heave the roots out 
while freezing and thawing, which it will assuredly do if 
the soil is composed of clear muck, or a portion of the 
oxide of iron. The object, in not covering young vines 
with water, being to avoid any unnecessary packing of 
the soil, and also to allow them to commence growing as 
early as possible in the spring. 

Some difierence of opinion exists as to the proper time 



FLOODING. 65 

for submerging cranberry meadows in the fall, some as- 
serting that it may be done any time after picking the 
fruit. This, however, is an error ; for the reason that the 
vines are known to make a very considerable growth 
after the first frost, and the berries should be gathered, if 
possible, before frost. 

It is a safe rule to raise the water as soon as the tem- 
perature becomes sufficiently low to stop vegetation. The 
time will be indicated by the vines commencing to assume 
a dull red appearance. 

The water should be kept up all winter, and not let off 
until, say, the 20th of April or 1st of May in New Jersey, 
and the 20th of May, or 1st of June, in the latitude of 
Massachusetts. 

It is not safe to keep the water on savannas in New 
Jersey later than the 1st of May, as it would retard the 
growth, and render the blossoms and newly formed ber- 
ries liable to be injured by the hot sun or drouths in the 
latter part of June or first of July. 

Springy bottoms, which are always moist during the 
dryest seasons, may safely be flooded until the 10th or 
even the 15th of May without injury to the crop, be- 
cause there will be sufficient moisture in the soil to perfect 
all the late and small berries. 

Flooding to destroy insects, etc., is alluded to in the 
chapter devoted to Enemies and Difficulties. 

In order to flood a meadow effectually, it is necessary 
to construct a substantial dam aci-oss the lower end of 
it, and, in doing this, no pains should be spared to render 
the barrier reliable and permanent. 

It is false economy to carelessly thiow up an embank- 
ment, with turf or muck under it, leaving roots or brush 
scattered through the sand, and expect it to hold a liquid 
which is always striving to obey the one great law of its 
nature ; viz., to seek a level. Turf fences or muck will 
not answer the purpose ; the only dam for a cranberry 



66 



CRANBERRY CULTURK. 



meadow that may be depen<led upon, is one constructed 
of clean sand, free from roots, or pieces of turf, and 
built upon the solid sand or loam, as the case may be. 

If it be desired to build a dam across a meadow con- 
taining muck six feet in depth, dig a road entirely through 
the muck, and lay the dam upon a sure foundation, or it 
will not stand the test. 

Before commencing the dam, learn where you want it, 
and then how large the flood will require it to be. Its 
locality must depend upon circumstances ; its dimensions 
upon the height of water required to flood the meadow. 
To determine this last point, level the ground with a 
theodolite, if one is at hand ; if not, take an ordinary 




Fi^'. 26. — LEVELLING. 

spirit-level and two boards, and proceed to tlie lowest 
spot along the line of the proposed dam ; there drive the 
boards perpendicularly into the earth, eighteen inches 
a})art, and rest the spirit-level on top of them, pointing to 
the highest knoll you intend covering with water. Bring 
it to a level by tapping on top of the highest board. 

Then send your assistant to the knoll, with instructions 
to erect a pole, and move a white target up or down it, 
as you direct hitn, by the motion of your hand. 

By sighting along the top of the spirit-level you will 
be enabled to judge when the target is level with your 
eye. 

Having established this point on the pole — by a pencil 
mark — the difl'erence in the hciglit of the two positions 
may be ascertained by subtracting the height of the mark 



FLOODING. 



67 



on the pole from the height of the spirit-level above the 
surfice of the ground. 

By way of illustration, let the mark, A, (fig. '26) be one 
foot high, and the top of the level, B, be three feet above 
the ground, C. Then will BC, less AD, equal two feet. 
And it will require a dam two feet high, erected at the 
puint, C, to raise \vater to the top of the knoll, D. 

Havino- thus determined the greatest depth of the re- 
quired pond, build your dam accordingly, making it fully 
as thick as the water will be deep ; for instance, if it is 
fo ind that a " head " of six feet will be required, dig a 



Sanrf 








X, 



Fi-. :i7.- 



V D.'.M I'KOTEl 



ditch, six feet wide, entirely throxr/h the muck, and fill it 
up with clean sand for the foundation of the dam. On 
each side of this foundation erect a substantial turf wall, 
six feet thick, to support and protect the true dam, which 
is afterward made by filling up and packing with sand 
the space between the walls. 

The dam should be made somewhat higher than it 
would generally be required, to prevent freshets from 
overflowing and washing it away. Fig. 27 represents a 
dam such as we have described. 

The object of liaving tuif on each side is not to hold 
water, but to economize the sand by supporting it just 



GS CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

where it is needed, and also to protect the dam from the 
rippling water, which otherwise -would undermine and 
wasli it down. 

The dimensions given for the dam may seem large, but 
if you attempt to construct one upon the muck, or make 
the width of the dam less than the required depth of the 
water, or the protecting \valls narrower than the bank 
of sand, thinking, thereby, to save expense, you may be 
sadly disappointed. 

"A thing worth doing at all is worth doing well," is 
an old saying, and it is particularly applicable to the 
building of dams ; for the ^vater will be sure to attack 
the embankment in the weakest place, and a small leak 
will drain a great pond. 

A dam was once constructed in the manner described, 
excepting that the turf walls were about half as thick as 
the embankment of sand. The result was, upon raising 
the water, the saiul settled down, and forced the w^alls 
asunder, threatening to " let all the mighty waters out," 
which, no doubt, would have been the consequence, had 
not one of the proprietors adopted the expedient of driv- 
ing dow' n large stakes on each side of the dam, and con- 
necting them with stout wires, thus sustaining the walls, 
and preventing them from separating further. 

A dam near Tom's River, N. J., built at a cost of 
$6,(H)0, to flood a meadow containing three hundred 
acres, broke recently, because of a weakness under the 
floodgates. The massive gates and a portion of the dam 
were carried away, which, in connection with ha\ ing the 
water drained ofi* in midwinter, has damaged the owner 
to the amount of about $2,000, besides doing considerable 
injury to land and mill owners located on the stream 
below. 

Floodgates are necessary in all dams of any considera- 
ble size, in order to regulate the de{)th of water in the 
pond ; but for savq,nuas or heath ponds, where the sup- 



FLOODING. 



69 



ply of* water is dependent upon rains, the damming of a 
ditch, or filling up with sand, a small cut in the embank- 
ment will frequently be found sufficient. 

For a small stream, and low head, floodgates may be 
constructed in summer by any ordinary workman, as fol- 
lows : Select cedar, or other lasting timber, (as the water 
will be drawn off in warm weather, thus leaving the 
wood-work in the most favorable condition for decay) 
and drive down thick planks on each side of the ditch, 
with their broadsides towards the outlet, for posts. Then 
fix a plank, ten or twelve inches wide, in the bottom of 
the ditch, to serve as a mud-sill, and nail it firmly to the 
posts, letting it extend five or six feet beyond them, to 
form a portion of the wings. These wings are afterward 



Us^^^^^ffi^fc 







FLOODGATE. 



boarded up along the dam, on each side of the gates, and 
a sheeting is constructed, reaching entirely through the 
dam, to convey the water off. (See fig. 28.) 

The corners between the wings and sheeting, as well 
as the space under the floodgates, should be filled up 
with clean sand. Boards, sliding in grooves above the 
mud-sill, are employed to raise or lower the head of water. 

In large rapid streams, or with high heads, floodgates 
made in this way would not be efficient. For these, 
plank, driven down in front of the mud-sill, is the only 
sure method of preventing the water from flowing under 
the gate. 

Preparations for cranberrv culture have become so ex- 



'0 



CRANBERRY CULTURE. 



tensive of late, that it has frequently been found neces- 
sary to construct massive dams of eart^, similar to those 
used for mill-jjonds ; and where the suiface to be covered 
is very large, it is better to incur this expense than to 
leave the vines uncovered in winter. 

Where a small head of water, say about one foot only 
is required, the dam maybe made by throwing up against 
the turf fence an embankment of sand, and sodding the 




Fii:. 21>. — KMiiANKMi:NT sri'i'oitTKi) nv a Ti^iP fence. 

face of it with turf, to prevent its being washed down. 
(See fig. 29.) 

A dam of this character may be seen at our twenty- 
acre meadow, near New Lisbon, rendering efficient ser- 
vice where a head of two feet is required. 

The same rule applies to this as to other barriers for 
holding water, viz. : No muck should be used in its con- 
struction, and, if possible, allow it to settle thoroughly 
before raising a permanent head. 



ESTEMIES AKD DIFFICULTIES. 71 

CHAPTER VIII. 

ENEMIES AND DIFFICULTIES. 

It has been said that horticultare is a battle with in- 
sects. The cranberry grower soon learns that his culture, 
peculiar as it is in mauy respects, is not exempt from in- 
sect enemies. These are usually the chief obstacles in 
his path, and frequently bailie his efforts and disappoint 
his brightest anticipations. To successfully fight the 
insect enemies of the Cranberry, it is necessary, as with 
those of other crops, to first learn the habits of the dep- 
redators, and their mode of attack. Those will be the 
most successful in rei3elling insects who give to their 
habits the most intelligent and careful observation. 

Fruit Worm. 

Soon after the hopeful cultivator has established his 
plantation, and while he is anxiously w^atching its first 
fruits, he observes some of tlie berries prematurely turn- 
ing red, shriveling, and, before picking time, entirely dry- 
ing up. This destruction is caused by the fruit worm. 

This larva bears a striking resemblance to the ordinary 
apple worm, and, like that, is lazy and sluggish in its 
habits. We have reason to believe that the perfect 
insect lays its eggs under the tender skin of the newly- 
formed berry. This ^^^^ is hatched by heat, and the 
young grub eats its way into the heart of the fruit, caus- 
ing certain destruction. It has been asserted by some 
cultivators that one worm will destroy one berry only ; 
but this is a mistake ; the same worm w^ill frequently de- 
stroy at least two. This is fully estal)lished by the fact 
that two berries may be found with a hole passing di- 
rectly from one to the other, at the point where they 
come in contact — one being red, *nd the other fresh and 



72 



CRANBERRY CULTFRE. 



green, with a nearly full-grown worm in it; as further 
evidence, we may state that worms have been discovered 
on the })assage from one berry to another. 

This premature coloring of the berry — the effect of the 
fruit worm — has been observed in New Jersey as early as 




WORK OF THE FUUTT WORM. 



the 10th of July, on the dryest meadows, and later on 
those tliat are moist. Its ravages continue until the 1st 
of September, after which the remains of the fruit are 
visible in the form of dry, hollow shells, from which the 
worms have disappeared. These shells may be counted 
upon a small space, and the damage ascertained by pro- 
portioning them to the amount remaining sound. In dry 



ENEMIES AKD DIFFICULTIES. 73 

seasons, the loss resulting from the fruit worm frequently 
amounts to one-half of the berries formed ; and, in some 
cases, it has been so great as to leave only one-tenth of 
the fruit to come to perfection. The Avork of the Fruit- 
vorm is illustrated in figure 30. 

The defense employed against this voracious worm 
consists in keeping the surface of the meadow moist, from 
the formation of the fruit until toward the middle of 
August ; if it is not so naturally, resort to irrigation. The 
eiFect of moisture at this time seems to be to keep the 
bottom cool, and thereby to j^revent the hatching of the 
worm — after the same manner that weevils are avoided, 
by allowing the grain to become fully ripe before it is 
gathered into barns ; thus preventing its heating in bulk, 
and hatching the weevils. 

James A. Fenwick says : " I have observed natural 
patches, a rod or two wide, sloping to a stream, where, 
next the stream, not a berry would be injured, while on 
the dryer part three-fourths were destroyed — this destruc- 
tion reaching nearer the stream in proportion as the sea- 
son was dry or wet. It is natural to infer that the ^^^ 
is laid in the berry ; and on the moist land the tempera- 
ture is not sufficiently high to hatch it, while on dry 
ground it is." 

Mr. Fish observes: "When fully grown, the worms 
enter the ground and spin their cocoons within a few 
inches of the surface. The cocoons are covered with 
grains of sand, and are hardly distinguishable from small 
lumps of earth. They remain in the ground all winter. 
I do not positively know the perfect insect, as I have 
never been able to rear it in-doors. In the spring of 
1867 I bred two species of Ichneumons from these co- 
coons that had remained in the house over winter." 



74 



craxberry culture. 
Vine Worm. 



There is another species of larva which feeds upon the 
leaf of the cranberry vine, and, when uncontrolled, works 
early destruction upon the whole plantation ; spinning 




Fig. 31.— VINE WOKM AND ITS WORK, 
a, Larva; h. Moth, natural size ; c, do., magnified. 

its web around the leaves and upright branches, it binds 
them toi^etlier, and destroys them. This larva looks very 
much like the fruit worm in size and color, excepting that 



ENEMIES AND DIFFICULTIES. 75 

its head is darker, and its body more hairy. Figure 31 
shows the larva and perfect insect of the Vine worm, and 
the appearance of tlie vines after its attacks. 

James A. Fenwick, speaking of the vine worm, says: 
" It feeds on the under side of the leaf, leaving nothing 
hut the veins, and increases rapidly to a countless multi- 
tude, causing the meadow infested by them to appear as 
if scorched by fire ; hence their name, ' fire worm.' Upon 
observing a meadow infested by them in April, I found 
the worms feeding upon the leaves, and partially sur- 
rounde<l with webs. In June I noticed they had webs 
enclosing clusters of vines (ignorant persons thinking 
them spider webs), apparently for shelter from the 
weather. Upon approaching them with a heavy tread, the 
worms suddenly disappeared, dropping to the ground ; 
but, stepping noiselessly, and touching the webs, the 
worms would drop into my hand, making, at the same 
time, vigorous efforts to escape. By the close of July 
not a worm could be seen, but the webs remained; 
doubtless the worms had enclosed themselves in cocoons. 
In August, the millers arose in numbers around my feet, 
taking short flights, and again settling upon the ground ; 
by September these had disappeared, and the worms had 
increased a hundred-fold; evidently showing that two 
generations of these insects were hatched in one season." 

In Packaid's Guide to the Study of Insects may be 
found the following minute description of the vine worrn^ 
and the moth, of which it is the larva: "Mr. Fish has 
discovered an undescribed species of Anchylopera^ which 
feeds in the cranberry, and which we may call the Cran- 
berry Anchylopera [A. vaccinlana). The moth is dark 
ash, the fore-wings being whitish, dusted with brown and 
reddish scales, wdth wdiite, narrow bands on the costa, al- 
ternating wath broader yellowish -brown bands, five of 
w^hich are several times larger than the others, and from 
four of them regular indistinct lines cross the wing. The 



76 CRAXBERRY CULTURE. 

first line is situated just beyond tlie inner third of the 
wing, and is often obsolete. The second line is the 
largest, and is slightly bent over once in the middle of 
the wing. There is a large brown spot parallel to the 
costa, being situated on the angle. The third line is 
oblique, and slopes before reaching the inner angle, and 
is forked on the costa, Avhile the fourth line is a short, 
a|)ical, diffuse, irregular line. The apex of the wing is 
dark brown, and is a little more acute than usual in the 
genus. The length of a fore-wing is the twentieth of an 
inch. It lays its eggs on the leaves during the month of 
August, and a new brood of larvae appears in September, 
though they hatch mostly in the following spring, or 
early in June, and become fully grown in July. 

" The larva, seen from a])ove, is much like that of 
Loxotmnia rosaceana, but the head is a little larger in 
proportion to the rest of the body, being as wide as the 
body in its thickest j^art The body is more hairy, while 
the protliorax is not dark. The chrysalis is rather slender, 
the body being contracted at the base of the abdomen, 
on the rings of which there are dorsal rows of fine spines. 

" Mr. Fish writes me that these larvae, called the Cran- 
berry Vine Worms, hatch about the first of June from 
eggs that have remained upon the leaves of the plant all 
winter. They commence to feed upon the tender grow- 
ing shoots of the plant, drawing the leaves together with 
their web for shelter, concealing themselves, and feeding 
within. Before reaching their full size, they, if very 
numerous, almost wholly destroy the leaves and tender 
shoots, giving the whole bog a dark, dry appearance, as 
though a fire liad been over it. This is why they are, in 
some places, known as 'fire worms.'' Having reached 
their full size, they spin up among tlie leaves, or among 
the dead leaves upon tlie ground. After remaining in the 
pupa state about ten or thirteen days, the moths come 
out, and deposit their eggs upon the leaves. 



ENEMIES AND DIFFICULTIES. 77 

"This year (1868) the moths were out the last of June 
and first of July. In five or six days the eggs hatched, 
and this second brood, which is usually the most destruc- 
tive, mostly changed to pupa on the 20th of July. On 
the 26th of July the first moth came out, and most were 
out before the 4th of August. Most of the eggs laid in 
August do not hatch until the following spring. I did 
succeed in finding two or three larvae in September, but 
they were rare at that time." 

In New Jersey, the larvoe nie quite common during the 
month of September, and may frequently be found in 
October. We are disposed to believe that many of them 
live through the winter in sheltered places, securely 
wrapped in their webs. Turf fences, and densely matted 
vines, not flooded, afl'ording them a safe asylum. This 
opinion is confirmed by the fact that large-sized larvae 
may be found early in the spring ; and also from our hav- 
ing kept a worm in a cold room until March, with every 
indication of its living until May. 

The cranberry was not the principal food of the vine 
worm until it was brought under cultivation ; while 
growing naturally in bogs and sw^amps, where it was 
liable to be flooded during the winter and early spring, it 
was not well adapted to their requirements. The worm 
had made its home among the Feat\\er-\enf (Cassandra 
calyculata) and Low-bush Huckleberry, until the days 
of cranberry culture, when it descended upon the new 
plantations, and threatened, for a time, their entire de- 
struction. But Yankee enterprise came to the rescue, 
the meadow^s were flooded, and the worms defeated. 

By some it is supposed that there are four generations 
of these pests in one season ; however this may be, by 
destroying them once a year, they will be rendered almost 
harmless. To work their destruction, keep the meadow 
flooded until the 10th of May, in New Jersey, and until 
near the 1st of June, in Massachusetts; or, cover the 



lO CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

vines ictth water just hefore they hlossow, while the fruit- 
buds are showing plainly, and hokl it on for twenty-four 
hours^ but no longer, as the water, injures the crop of 
fruit if left on too long wliile the vines are in this state. 
The latter expedient can only be resorted to when a copi- 
ous stream is at hand. 

Plantations tliat have, to all appearance^;, become worth- 
less by the ravages of tlie fire worm, may be restored by 
flooding. This was illustrated on the " Willow Farm," 
near Medford, X. J. Upon this tract osier willows had 
been planted among the cranberry vines, with the object 
of obtaining a double crop. But, like one who aims too 
high, and hits nothing, this pLinter lost both basket ma- 
terial and cranberries ; for the worms, attacking the wil- 
lows, soon spread over tlie vines beneath, and spoiled all. 
The meadow remained in an unprofitable condition for 
several years, when, as a last resort, dams were construct- 
ed at considerable expense, and a head of water raised, 
which resulted in exterminating the worms, and shortly 
after (in 1867) a crop averaging one hundred bushels per 
acre Avas produced. Tliis was quite a recommendation 
for the farm, and enabled the owner to dispose of it to 
good advantage. The next year a light crop was general 
throughout New Jersey, and the Willow Farm was not 
an exception ; but, in 1869, it again yielded handsome re- 
turns, and now no danger is ai>prehencled from the " fire 
worm." 

In locations where water cannot be comnumded for 
winter flooding, other means must be adopted to destroy 
these insects. Professor Agassi/ recommends buihling 
fires at night around tlie meadow, while the moths are in 
existence. The dazzling light attracts them, and many 
fall victims to the devouring flames. 

The same principle is sometimes applied more effectu- 
ally in the following manner, viz. : a large ball of cotton 
is tightly wrapped in fine wire, and saturated with kero- 



ENEMIES AND DIFFICULTIES. 79 

sene ; it is then supported by wire over the middle of a 
cheese-box li<l, for instance, with a handle attaclied, the 
lid being covered insi<le an<l out with fresh tar. Several 
men, armed with these weapons of offence, proceed to the 
meadow at night, and, with their lamps lighted, march 
over the vines within touching distance of each other, all 
the while moving their lights from side to side. The 
insects are stirred up and killed in the flames, or caught 
by the tar. For a new vine worm, see p. 123. 

Grasshoppers and Crickets. 

Grasshoppers and crickets sometimes commit serious 
depredations upon the growing fruit. When very numer- 
ous, they have been known to destroy one hundred bush- 
els of cranberries per acre. They do the damage by 
eating a small portion from the side of the fruit, thus 
causing it to shrivel, until nothing but a dry shell remains. 
These are easily distinguished from the hollow shells 
left by the fruit worm. Grasshoppers are most abundant 
upon meadows containing a large amount of grass; while 
crickets prefer to work near turf fences, or on some locali- 
ty which affords them a good hiding-place. These facts 
offer strong inducements for having cranberry meadows 
thoroughly cleaned, i. 6., free from grasses, brush, etc. It 
has been asserted that flooding wdll dispose of them ; but 
as the season for their depredations, viz., during July and 
August, is hot, this would be attended with great risk of 
ruining the whole crop by scalding. The destructive 
visits of grasshoppers and crickets have not been very 
common to cranberry growers, and many have rested in 
the belief that, when they did come, all that was neces- 
sary was to raise the water, then lioist the gates, and let 
them float down stream. But this Avill not answer, for 
the reason that every recruit in that vast army has nimble 
legs which render him quite competent to "paddle liis own 



80 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

canoe." This water-cure was fully tested near Medford, a 
few years since, where an eye witness avers that he saw 
one specimen out beyond hi iepth actively engaged in 
teaching diving-scliool. 

It is believed that deep flooding in winter, and clean cul- 
ture, are the surest means of avoiding the dej)redations of 
both crickets and grasshoppers. 

Musk-rats and Mice. 

Among the enemies of cranberry culturists may be 
numbered musk-rats and mice. The former sometimes in- 
jure the crop by crawling over the blossoms and fruit, 
and also in boring through dams and letting off the water 
at unseasonable times. 

The latter are addicted to the wasteful habit of eating 
the seeds, from the berries, both before and after picking, 
and leaving the remainder entirely worthless. Whole 
haiidfuls, treated in this way, may be found at times 
during picking season. The only remedy for these evils 
seems to be to trap the vermin. 

Frosts. 

Frosts occurring late in spring, or early in autumn, are 
seriously apprehen<led by the grower. If they come 
towards the last of May, or first of June, the fruit-huds 
are liable to be destroyed ; and if during September, or 
wliile the berries are w^hite and unripe, the effect is to 
soften and spoil them. 

The damaging results of spring frosts are avoided by 
flooding sufficiently late to destroy the vine worm. This 
retards the growth of the vines, and buds are not formed 
until after tlie danger is past. Care must be taken, how- 
ever, not to retard the crop too much, lest it be overtaken 
by frost in the fall, 



EISTEMIES AKD DIFFICULTIES. 81 

Upon some meadows, the fruit-buds in spring, or unripe 
berries in autumn, are destroyed by frost, while others in 
the same neighborhood esca))e uninjured. Natural bogs 
are more apt to suffer from this cause than those which 
have been sanded. This is partially owing to the dense 
covering of sj)hagnum, bushes, etc., keeping the swamp 
from becoming warmed during the day. In all cases 
where the soil is barren, deprived of vegetable growths, 
stony, or sandy, it becomes far Siotter by the absorption 
of the sun's rays, and hence less liable to frosts than one 
that is cov^ered with plants ; for instance, in the deserts 
of Africa, the heat of the sand often amounts to from 
1*22^ to 140° F., while upon the oases, wdiere the surface 
is clothed in verdure, the temperature of the soil is always 
lower. 

Plants cool much more rapidly by nocturnal radiation 
tlian tlie earth, and this fact, in connection with their 
being at a lower temperature at sundown, is sufficient to 
explain why frost is deposited sooner upon vi^es growing 
among mosses and grass than it is upon those cultivated 
upon beds of sand. 

But even when the temperature is sufficiently low to 
produce frost on cultivated meadows, the berries some- 
times escape without injury. 

It is a peculiarity of frost that, when removed gradu- 
ally, it loses its power to destroy. Even tender garden 
plants, when frosted, may sometimes be saved by throw- 
ing cold water on them early in the morning. 

When frost forms on vines in a swamp, it remains until 
the rising sun dispels it rapidly, thus causing destruction 
among the tender buds and green berries, wdiile upon 
so lie cultivated meadows, when a slight frost forms dur- 
ing the night, the sand, by reason of its conducting power, 
thaw^s it gradually, without any injuiy resulting there- 
from. 

James A. Fen wick observes that "cranberries suffer 
4* 



82 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

much m(>re from early frosts durinu^ droutlis than when 
meadows are moist, particularly if they are covered with 
old vines and dry grass ; these being non-conductors, the 
frost remains longer in the morning ; and when the direct 
rays of the sun fall upon the vines, the thawing is sudden, 
and the fruit is softened." He says, further : " I have ob- 
served the effect of frost upon bogs during drouths, 
when all the berries appeared the same before sunrise, but 
before noon, those growing on old, thick vines, among 
grass, were softened, while on sanded surfaces they 
escaped. Berries, on a strip where the vines (in a natural 
bog) had been coveied with sand, thrown from a ditch, 
being firm and hard, while on both sides of this strip 
they were softened." 

Excessive Heat. 

When berries begin to change from green to white, a 
temperature of 85°, F., will soften many of them. This 
fact will cause the culture of cranberries to be confined 
to a line a little south of New Jersey, as the heat of 
September (tlie ripening season) must increase to the 
southward, so that, although the fruit maybe grown, it 
is likely to be of an inferior quality. 

During the summer of 1869, one very hot daj^ was suf- 
ficient to destroy hundreds of bushels of cranberries in 
New Jersey. The berries, being partly cooked, remained 
on the vines in a soft, worthless condition, until picking 
time, much to the annoyance of the pickers, who were re- 
quired to sort them out. 

The Scald ok Rot. 

When cranberries upon the vines appear semi-trans- 
parent, as if they were partly cooked, they are said to be 
scalded. Since the first edition of this work was pub- 
lished, scalding has been investigated by Mr. J. A. Fen- 



ENEMIES Al^B DIFFICULTIES. 83 

wick, who has treated the snhject at considerable length. 
His essay will be found in the appendix on 'page 125. 

Grass and Rushes. 

Grass and rushes aie no„ the least of the difficulties to 
be overcome. Tiiey should be removed with a hoe the 
first season after planting ; but during the second and 
third years it will be found necessary either to hand-pull, 
or carefully take them up with a trowel, to avoid loosen- 
ing the runners. 

The millet-grass, being an exception, need not be dis- 
turbed, since it will gradually die of its own accord, and 
make room for the vines. (See Chapter VI.) Even 
rushes, it is said, if mowed twice a year, to prevent their 
going to seed, will give place to the vines. They fre- 
quently grow upon lands that are best adapted to cran- 
berry culture. 

Late flooding is also a means of destroying grass, etc. 
(The process is described in Chapter YI.) 

Moss. 

The moss {Polytrichum commune)^ so prevalent upon 
lands containing ashes, is objectionable, in that it lifts 
the runners, and prevents them from rooting in the soil. 
We know of no better way of disposing of moss than to 
cover it with an inch or two of sand. 

This remedy may be applied even after the vines are 
one or two years old ; the runners should be covered, and 
the upright branches, if possible, left out. The vines, 
thus established, will put forth runners, and take posses- 
sion of the clean surface. 

Tip-Worm. 

There are other insects beside the vine and fruit worm, 
which interfere more or less w4th the cranberry crop. 



84 CRANBEKRY CULTURE. 

which, as yet, g lowers have not discovered any remedy 
for ; of these, Z. II. Small, of Harwich, Mass., writes us : 
"The most destructive, and tlie least likely to be noticed 
by growers, is a very small, orange-colored insect, called the 
' tip-worm,' which preys only on the newly-formed buds 
at the tip of the shoots. This insect is too small to be 
readily seen, but its presence is indicated by two leaves at 
the top of the shoot, standing erect, and concaved, or 
spoon-bowl shaped, on the inner, or bud side. It seems to 
do its work in tlie summer, while the berries arc growing, 
and buds forming for the next year's crop. Very few 
yards are entirly free from this insect ; some can be found 
in almost any cranberry patch, and, in a few cases, they 
have been known to destroy the whole crop." 

The tip-worm has been noticed slightly in New Jersey, 
but most cranberry growers in this State are unacquaint- 
ed with both the worm and its works. 

Spax-Worm. 

Z. H. Small also alludes to another insect, which he 
says is a peculiar kind of span-worm, of a dark-brown 
color, making its appearance in swamps, and, like the lo- 
custs of Egypt, leaving only destruction behind. A few 
pitclies in Massachusetts are attacked by it almost 
every season, but, as yet, they know nothing of its 
parentage nor its habits, excepting what is witnessed in 
Its work upon the vines. It comes when the fruit is aboi t 
setting, and there seems to be no way of destroying it 
except by raisin": the water, which, at that season of the 
year, causes the fruit to drop off. This worm is unknown 
among cranberrry culturists in Xew Jersey. (See ap- 
pendix.) 

Lack of Moi^ey. 

Our list of difficulties would be incomplete did we not 
call attention to the very serious inconvenience which 



PICKING. 85 

some have experienced in obtaining money to carry out 
their too extensively hiid plans. We therefore recommend 
all beginners who are likely to fall into this difficulty, to 
count the cost before beginning, and allow a sufficient 
margin for contingencies. It is better to complete five 
acres than, in clearing fifteen, to exhaust the treasury, 
and leave the vines unplanted. 



CHAPTER IX. 

PICKING. 

If you, persevering reader, have practically followed us 
through all the matter-of-fact descriptions of locating the 
meadow, preparing it for the vines, and bringing it into 
the best possible condition for future profit, you may, per- 
haps, by this time, have experienced some of the Aveariness 
felt by us while living for months in a log cabin, laboring 
to accomplish the self-imposed task of setting out thirty- 
two acres of cranberry meadow. If so, we trust when you 
come to " picking" on your own account, you will i-ealize 
some of the pleasure and satisfaction incident to finding 
the fruit of one's own labors abundant. 

The picking season is a pleasant one, for several reasons, 
to both picker and proprietoi*. The weather is proverbially 
fine in that most delightful of all months, October, when 
women and children turn out in great numbers to join 
the " cranberry i^icking " frolic, with well-filled dinner 
baskets and happy countenances. 

The price for picking averages about fifty cents per 
bushel ; the hands, at this rate, making $1 per day, although 
a " right smart " picker can, where the berries are numer- 
ous, earn $2 per day. 



86 



CRAKBERRY GULTURE. 



In New Jersey, ^ve commencG picking on savannas 
about the middle of September; but on our densely mat- 
ted swamp lands, it is deferred until the 1st of October; 
the time being regulated by the coloring of the berries. 
The work siiould commence as soon as they are suffi- 
ciently colored to command good prices, in order that 
they may all l)e gatliere 1 before the first heavy frost, 
which may be looked for towards the last of October. 

Much care is requisite, while picking, to secure the ber- 
ries without bruising them. If 
they are }>oured into bags, and 
used for seats by the pickers, 
or thrown over their shoulders 
and carried half a mile or so. 



over a rough road, the loss from 




-I'OUTABhB FAN. 



shrinkage and decay will l)e 

very considerable. But if the 

fruit is picked in pock baskets 

or boxes, and poured directly 

into the ])ackages in which they are to be shipped, no loss 

from the handling will ensue. 

When dead vines, grass, etc., are gathered with the 

fruit, they may be blown out while it is being poured into 

the barrel, by using a very light, movable fan (fig. 32), 

made to clamp the edge of 
the bai-rel, somewhat in the 
same manner that a clothes- 
wringer is fastened to the 
Fig. 33 —PECK BOX. tub. This machine would 

also remove the dried or shriveled berries, and leave the 

fruit in a good marketable condition. 

The idea is for the picker to pour a peck of berries into 

the hopper. A, and turn the crank 1> while they are run- 
ning through. The invention is not patented, and we 

give it to the public for what it is worth. 

We have used peck boxes, fig. 33, for j)icking in, made 




PICKING. 87 

of light material, in the following manner, viz. : The sides 
are of boards, half an inch in thickness, 13'|^ inches long, 
and 6 inches wide ; abont these were nailed thin strips of 
lath, 9 inches long, making the inside dimensions, when 
fitiished, 13' |^ in. x 8 in. x 6 in., or eqnal to a heaped peck. 
A wooden handle is then screwed to the top. 

This box is cheaper than a peck basket, gives good 
satisfaction, and, when properly constructed, will last 
several years. 

In order to pick the meadow over, if the vines have 
been planted in drills, let each picker take the space be- 
tween two of the original rows, pick on it for about one 
hundred yards to a given line, and then walk back and 
start a new row. Tlie object in turning back is to prevent 
confusion, which will inevitably result if they are allowed 
to pick in both directions, or if the rows are long and in- 
distinct. 

Where there are no rows visible, but only a solid mat 
of vines, let the pickers all start in evenly, with instruc- 
tions to keep in a straight line, which they can nearly do, 
for a short distance, by the slowest pickers taking the 
narrowest strips, and vice versa. 

Sometimes, when no rows are to be seen, the meadow 
is staked off in lots of a few square rods each (this should 
be done in spring, to avoid trampling upon the berries), 
and regularly picked over, each picker taking one lot at 
a time. 

Some care is necessary, at first, to properly discijjline 
the pickers, and cause them to pick clean as they go. 
This may be done by calling them back in a pleasant, but 
decided manner, to gather any berries that may have 
been found after them. They will soon take the hint, 
and perform their work carefully. 

It is very important that a reliable and expeditious 
method of keeping the pickers' accounts be adopted, es- 
pecially if you have a large quantity of fruit to gather. 



88 CRANBERRY CULTrRE. 

The old ]>lan was to ])ick in baskets, and then ]»our tlie 
berries into basfs, only takiiiix them ui) at noon or nisfht 
to be measured ))y tlie boss; tlie number of pecks or 
busliels picke<l by Till Willifts or TTannali Hutler, beinc^ 
then credited to them in liis book. Tlie objections to thi«^ 
system were serious: the l)erries Avere unnecessarily han- 
dled ; the trouble of measuring a large lot of fruit, wliilo 
the pickers were standing around, impatient to get home, 
was very great ; and the accounts, kept under such circum- 
stances, were not always to be depended upon. Hannah 
would keep lier own account; and if, in the settlement, 
yours did not correspond with it, Avhat could you do but 
allow hers ? 

These inconveniences induced growers to look about 
for something better, which they found in the jieck boxes 
or baskets^ now used. The barrels are taken into tlie 
meadow, and deposited in some spot convenient to the 
pickers. When a ])eck box is filled, it is brought up and 
emptied by the picker, who in turn receives a ticket, 
somewhat like this. 



ONE PECK. 

(G7Vive?'\<! Name.) 



Other tickets, of different colors, and larger denomina- 
tions — for instance, one bushel, and five bushels — are 
convenient to exchange for these. The object in having 
them of different colors is, that they may be distinguished 
at a glance, without reading. 

This does away with all measuiing, all book accounts, 
and all mistakes. The tickets represent so mucli money, 
and are frequently used as such at the neighboring stores. 

Another method is to liave each peck box numbered, in 
large figures, and keep the accounts in a book ; the picker's 
number being used instead of her name. The advantage 



PICKING. 89 

claimed for this plan is, that the proprietor may make 
the entry in his book without walking to the picker to 
present a ticket. It certainly allows him more liberty, 
and a better opi)ortunity to look after the pickers, and 
keep them straight. 

Jos. 0, Hinchmaii lias adopted this mode : he uses a 
ditferent colored pencil for keeping the record of each 
day of the week, which enables him to tell just what has 
been done upon any day. When the hands are paid off 
the record is cancelled. 

The fruit may be put up for market either in barrels or 
boxes ; if the former are used, new barrels should be ob- 
tained, with a capacity of two bushels and three pecks 
each. When second-hand ones, holding three bushels, 
are used, they must be filled, and then will sell for no 
more than the standard barrel. 

The peck of fruit thus lost to the grower would pay 
for the new package. New " cranberry barrels " may be 
had in Philadelphia for fifty-eight cents apiece. 

If huahel boxes are preferred, they may be made in the 
following manner : Take a board, three-fourths of an inch 
thick, and 6 inches wide, and saw it into pieces 18 inches 
long ; then, using two of these pieces for ends, nail 
around them strips of ordinary plastering lath, 2 feet in 
length, leaving spaces between them for ventilation. Tlie 
strength of the box may be hicreased by nailing strips 
over the ends of the lath ; these strips will also answer a 
good purpose in keeping the l)oxes slightly separated 
when stored in large quantities. These packages hold a 
heaped bushel, and cost, at this time, about twenty cents 
each. For New Jersey standard packages see p. 129. 

Barrels are the most desirable for shi})ping in ; but even 
where they are used, it is best to have a lot of ventilated 
boxes for drying wet berries in, previous to barreling 
them. They will be found useful during damp days, or 
early in the morning, while dew is on the fruit. 



90 C KAN BERRY CULTtTRE. 

Somo years ago, wlien natural cranberrj" bogs in New 
Jersey were regarded as public property, even as the 
huckleberry bushes are now, any one being allowed to 
gather the fruit, the "cranberry scoop" was freely used. 
This combed the berries off, and also pulled out large 
quantities of old vines and dead grasses, the removal of 
which, it is said caused the bogs to yiehl more abund- 
antly. 

The " cranberry rake " has been used in Massachusetts 
for gathering berries from cultivated meadows, but it is 
not destine<l to come into general use. Among young 
vines it is damaging to the runners ; but old meadows are 
evidently improved by its use, since many of the dead 
vines are thereby removed. 

The rake does not injure the fruit by bruising when 
handled carefully ; but its unprofitableness is owing prin- 
cipally to its wastefulness, too much fruit being dropped 
and trodden under foot. 

When berries are cheap, or difficulties arise in the way 
of j)icking, some advise flooding the crop in the fall, and 
leaving it to be gathered in the spring. But there are 
objections to this plan ; for instance, if the meadow is 
flooded early enough to save the fruit from frost, there is 
damper of injuring the fruit-bu<ls, and destroying the 
hopes of a crop the ensuing year; and if ihey are not 
covered until late, the berncs will be frosted, and of httle 
value in the market, besides being expensive to gather. 

Efforts have been made to perfect machinery for pick- 
ing cranberries, but so far without success. 



KEEPING. 91 

CHAPTER X. 

KEEPING. 

Cranberries grown upon meadows covered with a heavy 
growth of vines keep well, while those gathered from 
plantations imperfectly matted, with white sand visible 
through tlie vines, are more disposed to soften, and rot 
early. This is, perhaps, owing to the reflected heat from 
the sand, together with the direct heat of the sun, ripen- 
ing them too rapidly. Little spots, apparently the result 
of heat, may frequently be seen upon the sides of these 
beri'ies, and when thus aftected, they should be sent to 
market at once, as they will not keep long. As a rule, it 
is always best to sell cranberries grown upon young plan- 
tations, or on vines not well matted, as soon as they are 
sufliciently colored. This spotting of the fruit is not 
wholly confined to meadows thinly set, but may, at times, 
be seen upon berries produced amid the rank growths of 
natural bogs, especially when the weather is very hot at 
the time of ripening. 

Cranberries free from spots, and carefully handled to 
prevent bruising, will keep well in places suitable for 
storing- apples or other fruit, with as low a temperature as 
possible and yet avoid freezing . Thorough ventilation 
is also very essential ; hence, for keeping, the bushel 
boxes, previously described, are preferable to barrels ; for 
the reason that they permit the air to circulate freely. 

The sun's rays have a softening influence if allowed to 
shine upon cranberries after they are picked ; as was illus- 
trated by an individual who stored some berries in open 
bins, upon a shed floor ; the sun, being allowed to shine 
through a small window upon them, caused a portion to 
decay very rapidly. 

In another instance, a lot of fine berries were put in 



92 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

busliol boxes, and placed for a few weeks on a porch 
opening to the south. Those in the rear, which were 
protected, kept well, while the berries that were in front, 
exposed to the sun, rotted badly. 

Some years ago, it was tliought that cranberries could 
be kept on a large scale in a stream of clear running 
water. To try the expeiiment, we put a half-busliel of 
berries in a slatted box, and secured them soon after pick- 
ing, in a stream of the pure amber-colored water so com- 
mon in the pine region. 

These berries were picked from young vines, and would 
have rotted early in the open air; but when they were 
taken from the water, about the middle of May, we found 
them still fit for immediate use, although entirely too soft 
for shi})ping. It was found, also, that a gelatinous sub- 
stance had formed among them, which was difficult to 
wash out. 

They may be profitably kept for family use by placing 
tliem in stone jars with pure water. Wooden vessels 
should not be used for this purpose, as they impart an 
unpleasant flavor to the fruit, unless the water is changed 
frequently. 

Joseph Hinchman has adopted a novel method of 
keeping cranberries in large quantities, and it is said to 
answer a good purpose. 

His plan is to put the fruit in large shallow boxes, with 
perforated bottoms ; these boxes are then stored in tiers, 
and a current of air, made alternately wet and dry, is 
forced up through them by means of a blower, proi)elled 
by water-power. Blowing a dry current for a few hours, 
and then moist air for the same length of time, it is 
claimed, has a tendency to prevent decay, and also to red- 
den t)ie light-colored berries. 

The moist current is obtained by allowing a small 
stream of water to fall upon the rapidly revolving wings 
of the blower, when it is instantly converted into spray, 



KEEPING. 



93 



or mist, and forced with the air through the main pipe 
leading under the berries. 

The coloring process may be assisted, also, by spread- 
ing the fruit four or five inches thick upon a shaded floor, 
and leaving them thus for a few weeks. This fact was 
well known to the enterprising inhabitants of the " Pines," 
who were wont to gather the natural cranberries in an 
unripe condition, in order to secure them before their 
neighbors. The white specimens thus obtained were in- 
variably spread out and colored under an arbor of green 
boughs and leaves, made thick enough to exclude the 
sun's rays. 

More or less decay will always result fiom attempting 
to keep cranberries througli 
the winter; and the grower 
who stores for a higher price 
will find it to his interest to 
sort the berries before selling 
them. The sound fruit usually 
becomes well colored by keep- 
ing, and will command the 
highest market price when of- 
fered for sale; while the soft 
berries are generally acceptable 
to the pie makers,at lower rates. 

If they require winnowing previous to sorting, a fan, 
similar to that represented in figure 34, will be found a 
decided improvement upon the grain fan, so commonly 
used for this purpose. 

The endless apron, A, forming the bottom of the hop- 
per, gradually carries the berries forward, and drops them 
upon the inclined plane, B, from whence they pass to the 
barrel. Motion is imparted to this apron by a belt con- 
necting w^ith the farther end of the fan axle. While the 
berries are passing through the air channel, C, a strong 
current from the blower separates the trash from the fruit. 




Fiff. 34.— CKANBERRY FAN. 



94 CKAXBERRY CULTURE. 

This fan is the invention of James A. Fenwick, and is 
annually used by him for cleaning the berries obtained 
from his improved natural meadows. 

Cranberries may be rapidly sorted by allowing them to 
roll down a smooth, shallow, inclined trough. The rotten 
berries, not rolling readily, may be picked out, while the 
sound ones, by reason of their greater firmness, will pass 
on to the receiver below. 

It may not be inappropriate to give some recipes for 
preparing cranberries for the table; since there are many 
who, as yet, hardly know what they are, much less how 
to cook them. 

For instance, a story is related of an Englishman who, 
upon receiving a barrel of cranberries from a friend in 
America, acknowledged the receipt of them, stating that 
" the berries arrived safely, but they soured 07i the p<^s- 
sacje^'' We are left to infer that the uncooked fruit was 
served up in cream, a mode not approved of in New 
Jersey. 

Cranberry Sauce. 

Dissolve one pound of loaf sugar in one pint of water, 
bring to a boil, and add one quart of cranberries. Cook 
about fifteen minutes, or until clarified. 

For Tarts, spread the sauce, when cold, upon shells of 
puff paste. 

Cranberry Jelly. 

Pick and wash the cranberries, and put them over the 
fire, with half a j^int of water to each quart of berries. 
Stew them until they are soft, then mash them, and strain 
the juice through a jelly bag; to each pint of jiuce add 
one pound of loaf, or pulverized w^hite, sugar. Boil and 
skim until a jelly is formed, which can be told by drop- 



KEEPING. 95 

ping a little in a glass of cold water. If it falls to the 
bottom without mingling with the water, the jelly is done. 
When it is lukewarm, pour it into glasses, and let them 
stand until the following day ; then cover them with 
brandy paper, and paste them closely. 

Preserved Cranberries. 

Sort the cranberries, and use only those which are en- 
tirely sound. Take one pound of loaf sugar and one pound 
of fruit. Pour on water enough to dissolve the sugar, 
and cook until clear. Put them up in the manner describ- 
ed for jelly. 

Canned CrAiNtberries. 

Stew the cranberries, as for sauce, and, while hot, put 
them in cans, heated in boiling water, and seal them up 
perfectly air-tight. 

Canned cranberries are used extensively on ship board ; 
and during the late " American conflict," a cheap article 
was manufactured for the army, by using half a pound 
of brown sugar to each quart of berries. 

Exporting. 

Although much has been said concerning the exporta- 
tion of cranberries to Europe, very few have, in reality, 
been sent abroad, owing, doubtless, to the high price 
which the fruit has commanded in this country. 

Boston h:is, until within a few years, been the head- 
quarters of this fruit; but we learn that, for the twenty 
years previous to 1868, not more than forty barrels had 
been exported from that city. 

One lot, sold at public auction, in Liverpool, in 1867, 
netted the exporter about as much as he could have ob- 
tained at the time in Philadelphia. 



96 CRANBKUllY CULTURE. 

The fact is clearly demonstrated that, should our mar- 
kets really become overstocked with cranberries, new 
channels of trade would be opened to drain off the sur- 
plus. But, as yet, the American market is not fully de- 
veloped. 

There are, doubtless, many little towns throughout the 
country, the inhabitants of which are not acquainted with 
the cranberry. While the fruit is worth $15 per barrel in 
New York, no one troubles himself to introduce it into 
small places. 

Should one or two abundant crops be followed V)y low 
prices, the demand would be greatly increased ; for the 
leason that there are hundreds of families, not using them 
at $4 per bushel, who would become purchasers at $2; 
and, in course of time, consider the fruit as a necessary 
item in their stock of winter provisions. 

Several years ago, we were recommended to transport 
our berries across the ocean in tight barrels containing 
w^ater. But in these days of quick passages, all that is 
necessary is to select good keeping berries^ from well mat- 
ted vines, and ship them in new, dry barrels, well packed, 
to prevent shaking and bruising. 



I 



CHAPTER XL 

PROFIT AND LOSS. 

The cranberry business is no longer looked upon as 
speculative. It now takes its rank among those legiti- 
mate occupations which make good returns for well be- 
stowed labor; but, like any other business, to be pursued 
profitably, it must be conducted upon right principles, 
and with strict attention to details. 



PROFIT AND LOSS. 97 

Some, from a peculiar knowledge of what was required, 
and others, more hy good fortune than good management 
in selecting a locality, have achieved brilliant results; but 
many have failed, and many are now entering the business 
who will be disappointed. Did we herald the successes, 
and pass the failures by unnoticed, we would not be doing 
o.ir whole duty; yet the failures have not been without 
causes, and the principal of tliese are ignorance and exr- 
■ travagance. 

A New York firm, operating through an agent, we are 
told, spent tioenty thousand dollars in preparing and 
l)lanting a cedar swamp bottom near Manchester ; we 
visited the tract in 1867, and to us it had the appearance 
of an entire failure. The trouble seemed to lie in the 
sand used in its preparation, iron ore being al)undant in 
the vicinity. There are, however, some valuable mea- 
dows in the neighborhood of Manchester. 

Perhaps one of the most successful meadows in this 
State is a " little pond " in BurUngton Co., containing 
twelve acres. It has been planted some ten years, and 
Ave understand that the original cost of " putting it out " 
did not exceed five hundred dollars. In 1869, we saw 
upon a spur of this pond a patch of vigorous vines which 
had been in existence at least thirty years, and the pro- 
prietor informed us that he had never gathered from them, 
at one picking, less than one bushel and a half per square 
rod, and sometimes they yielded two bushels per square 
rod. 

In another instance, one square rod of the best vines in 
this meadow was staked oif, a line drawn around it, and 
the berries carefully jacked ; whereupon it was found to 
yield six bushels and two quarts, or at the rate of nine 
hundred and serenty bushels per acre. In 1868, three 
acres of this meadow yielded an average of three hund- 
red bushels per acre, and one acre produced a net income 
of 11,800. It is said that $'20,000 have been refused for 



98 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

tliis meadow, which is not remarkable, considering the 
income it produces. 

The figures given above may seem large, but we believe 
them to be entirely accurate. They are beyond compari- 
son with the profits of any other agricultural production, 
and have rarely been equalled, even in the cranberry busi- 
ness, although sensational writers have asserted to the 
contrary. It is a good meadow that averages one hund- 
red bushels per acre annually ; many do not yield half 
that quantity, and yet are quite profitable. 

Tlie cost of preparing the ground varies with its loca- 
tion, quality, amount of damming required, etc.; and, at 
best, our estimates would only be approximate. The 
average expenditure for completing one acre, where the 
plow will turn up sufiicient sand, is as follows : 

Original cost of land, say $30.00 

Ditching and damming 10.00 

Turfing, 25 cents i)er square rod 40.00 

Removing turf (into fences, or otherwise), 25 cents per rod 40.00 

Removing stumps, $2 per day, say 15.00 

Levelling inequalities of surface 6.00 

Plowing 3.00 

Harrowing and making drills for vines 3.00 

Ten barrels of vines, at $3 30.00 

Dropping and covering plants 8.00 

$185.00 

Expense of weeding 1st year $ 8.00 

" " 2d " 0-00 

" 3d " -l-OO 

4th " 2.00 

Four years' interest on first cost, at 7 per cent 51.80 

Total expense at the end of 4th year $250.80 

TROBABLE RECEIPTS. 

1st year, 1 peck, at $4 per bushel, net profit $ .50 

2d " 1 bu., " " " " " " 3.00 

3d " 8bu., " " " " " " 24.00 

4th " SObu., " '^ " " " " 240.00 

Net receipts at the end of 4th year $207.50 

A meadow of this class should pay for itself in four 



PROFIT AND LOSS. 99 

years. The crop of the fifth year frequently exceeds that 
of the fourth ; and if the plantation is a heath pond, or 
moist basin place, and is flooded during winter, and 
properly managed, it will continue to bear for many 
years. After the fourth year, the expense of weeding will 
be very little, indeed almost nothing. The vines should 
completely cover the surface, forming a dense mat that 
excludes all other vegetation. 

Where the muck is of sufficient depth to require sand- 
ing, this additional expense will bring the first cost up to 
about $275 per acre; althougli, in some instances, it has 
required twice that amount to prepare and plant the mea- 
dows and construct the dam. The cost varies with the 
width of the meadow, depth of sand required, etc. 

It is not the most expensive meadows that are most 
profitable; for instance, one in Ocean County, we are in- 
formed, cost $800 per acre, and yet is very unpi'omising. 

First-class meadows, in bearing condition, command 
high prices. Several years ago, S. H. Shreve purchased a 
tract, near Toms River, for $1,000 per acre ; and even at 
this high rate it is said to have paid for itself in three 
years. This meadow was originally a dense cedar swamp, 
and w^as prepared by clearing away the timber, turf, etc., 
and spreading several inches of sand upon the muck. 
The sand in the vicinity was of a yellowish color, although 
entirely free from loam. About the year 1863, Restore 
B. Lamb commenced operations upon a heath-pond bot- 
tom near Pemberton. There was but little turf to remove, 
and in three years he finished planting the vines upon ten 
acres, at a cost of about one hundred dollars ($100) per 
acre. These grew luxuriantly, and, in 1867, when only 
seven acres of the meadow w^ere in full bearing, the yield 
was twelve hundred bushels, which produced a net in- 
come of over three thousand dollars. In 1868, owing to a 
partial failure of the crop, the profits amounted to only 
about one thousand dollars, In 1809, the crop was esti- 



100 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

mated, early in the season, at two thousand bushels ; but, 
owing to excessive heat, and the ravages of the fruit worm, 
only eleven hundre*/' bushels weie gathered. 

When the first edition of this work was published, in 
1870, tlie business of growing cranberries was regarded 
as extremely profitable, and a large amount of capital 
was invested in it. As the acreage extended, the draw- 
backs increased. About the year 1873, the rot or scald 
prevailed to such an extent as to render the business ex- 
tremely hazardous. A few choice locations are compara- 
tively exempt from its ravages, but most of the meadows 
in New Jersey are affected. The insect enemies have 
also increased so that it is now probable that all the 
receipts derived from the sale of tlie fruit would fail to 
pay the expense incurred in jnirchasing and j^reimring 
cranberry meadows. 

CHAPTER XII. 
LETTERS FROM PRACTICAL GROWERS. 

Chlvago, III, Feb. 7th, 1870. 

Bear Sir : — In reply to yours of 22d, would say, as to 
the culture of our marsh, and the superiority of our ber- 
ries, we tliink it is owing to the large depth of our peat 
bed. The alluvial soil, deposited every spring by the 
large overflow of several miles, deposits entirely in our 
marsh. We also attribute our success in part to the 
numerous ditches we have ; in all, we calculate from 16 
to 18 miles in extent. 

W^e keep our vines well flooded duiing the winter, and, 
on account of the late June frosts we are subjected to, 
we rarely raise our flood-gates until the 15th of June. 

W^e are subject to early frosts in the autumn. In 1868, 
we had a very promising crop — estimated at 2,500 bar- 
rels — but o\vin<j: to the early frosts, only picked about 400 
"barrels sound berries. 



LETTERS PROM PRACTICAL GROWERS. 101 

In 1869, the large flow of waters drowned ns out near- 
ly, and the crop was very light. We consider it a pre- 
carious crop, at best. Yours truly, 

S. A. Sackett. 

The cranberry marsh above alluded to is an improved 
natural bog, containing six hundred acres, near Berlin, 
Wisconsin. 

Hyannis^ Mass.^ Feb. 22, 1870. 

Dear Sir : — I cannot express sti-ongly enough the ne- 
cessity there is for all beginners in cranberry growing to 
procure vines from reliable sources — those which are 
known to be productive, and free from rot. For three 
years past much com[>laint of the rot is heard among 
growers. The fruit commences to decay about the time 
of ripening, and often destroys the whole crop. Careful 
observers are learning that, while some varieties are sub- 
ject to this disease, others are entirely exempt. 

The j^rofits of cranberry culture are usually large -be- 
yond comparison with any farm crop raised about here. 
I am acquainted with a bog, containing a little short of 
two acres, that has, during the last ten years, yielded its 
owner ten thousand dollars, net profit^ or an average of 
one thousand dollars per year, clear profit. 

I am interested in a young bog of 140 rods, and here- 
with give a memorandum of the crops for the three years 
just past : 

1867, gathered 35 barrels, worth $11.00 per ])arrel $385.00 

1868, " 37 " " 12.50 " " 462.50 

1869, " 30 " " 10.00 " " 300.00 

Gross receipts $1,147.50 

Expenses each year, gathering and marketing fruit, 
cleaning drains — 

1867 $110.00 

1868 120.00 

1869 100,00 $330.00 

Profits for three jears $817.50 



102 CRANBERRY CtTLTURE. 

The origiiinl cost of tliis 140-ro(l hog was two hundred 
and fifty dollars poO), wliich cost inchides the first cost 
of land, and expenses of lioeing, etc., np to the time of 
the first crop, in 1867. 

Wishing you success with your book, 

I ara yours, etc., 

A. D. Makepeace. 

Yannouth Port, Jfass., Mb. 2lst, 1870. 

Dear Sir: — The whole story, all that is essential to he 
known, may be comprised in a small compass. 

1st. The soil, or bottom, should be peat, or peaty mat- 
ter. Xo cold springs — a head of water, so that the bog 
can be quickly fiowed at any time. 

2d. llemove all roots and turf down to the peat, where 
it is deep. Cut ditches around the edge of the bog, two 
feet deep, and three feet wide, and others across the bog, 
if required, to drain it. Cover with sand that contains 
no loam (and that will not adhere when pressed in the 
hand), from three to twelve inches deep. Where the peat 
is deep, the most sand is required. Set vines in hills or 
rows, two feet apart. Yours truly, 

Amos Otis. 

JTariouh, Massachusetts^ February^ 1870. 

Dear Sir: — In reply to yours of the 2d, would say 
that, about twenty-five years ago, I prepared two small 
patches of muck swamp land by clearing oflT the bushes 
and surface turf, or that containing the roots, then covered 
it some three or four inches with sand and gravel, set out 
the vines, and kept the water within two or three inches 
of the surface. 

The vines grew very slowly, but grass and weeds lux- 
uriantly, and both patches proved an entire failure. 

A few years afterw^ard, I wheeled off the gravel and 



LETTERS PROM PRACTICAL GROWERS. 103 

loam from both patches, and put on three or four inches 
of sand and gravel that was entirely free from loam or 
clay; drained so that the water in the ditches was from 
twelve to eighteen inches below the surface, and then set 
the vines, as we usually do, in small hills, of six or eio-ht 
shoots, or j^ieces, eighteen inches apart each way. The 
vines grew well, and with very little trouble from f»Tass 
or weeds; have had, generally, fair crops, which con- 
vinced me that the failure in my first attempt was not on 
account of soil or location, but wholly owing to the wrong 
material used in covering the muck, or mud, and keeping 
the ground too wet. 

My next operation in the way of cranberry culture, and 
the one that has, I think, been the most profitable, or 
paid the best percentage on the original cost of any patch 
in this region, was on a peat swamp of about two acres ; 
the growth upon it was huckleberry bushes, small ma- 
ples, and a kind of low bushes, with us called laurel 
bushes. The soil was from one to three feet of turf and 
peat, underlaid with a thin stratum of white sand, then a 
hard pan. The swamp could be drained and flooded 
almost any time from a pond near by. This patch I pre- 
pared as the others before named, putting on the white 
sand taken from the edge of the swnmp and upland. Set 
the vmes, Avhich, by way of accident, proved to be about 
the best vines yet found in this part of the country. They 
grew well, and put out for a fine crop on the third year, 
but, while in full bloom, the vine worm made its appear- 
ance. After four or five days, not only the blossoms were 
destroyed, but there was scarcely a green leaf to be seen. 
I had flooded it every winter and spring to about the first 
of April, when I let the water oflT. That was the usual 
time for letting off* by the cranberry growers in this vi- 
cinity. So, that year, this patch, as far as crop was con- 
cerned, was an entire failure. About this time, which 
was about 1854-5, the vine, or fire worm, had takeu 



104 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

almost full possGvSsion of all the cranberry yards on tlie 
Cape. After trying various experiments, such as sprink- 
ling over the vines with ashes, lime, pepper, tobacco, and 
several other articles with no good results, the growers 
became very much discouraged, and began to feel like 
giving up the business as a failure; but, in the spring of 
1857, T concluded to try the experiment of keeping the 
water on or over the vines later than usual, and did not 
let it off until the 4th of June, and flooded and let ofl* 
again three times up to the 20th of June, letting the water 
stay on each time from twenty-four to forty-eight hours; 
the result was the vines weie undisturbed by the vine 
worm. They put out well for a crop, and, after quite a 
portion of the fruit Avas eaten by the fruit Avorm, I har- 
vested about 110 barrels. Those repeated floodings, in 
this case, were to make sure work of it. I don't find it 
actually necessary to flood moi-e than once Avhere the 
water cnn be kept on until it is warm enough to destroy 
the ogii; of the vine worm, which is deposited on the under 
side of the A'ine leaf I find thnt the insect takes no note 
of the month, or day of the month, in making its appear- 
ance, but is governed entirely by the temperature of the 
air or water. In a forward spring, in a warm, sheltered 
location, the water may be let ofl' earliei- than in those 
locations more exposed to the wind, or Avhere the water 
is supplied from cold springs. 

Where Ave have the means of flowing at pleasure, I 
think it as Avell to flow soon after picking time, and let 
the water off" after the hard frosts — here, in Massachusetts, 
about the r20th, or last of ]\Iay. The gieatest difliculty I 
haA'e to contend Avith now is an overgrowth of vines. I 
have tried several methods to o\ ercome this trouble, but 
the only one that seems to promise any favorable results, 
is putting on, or among the vines, some two or three 
inches more of sand ; the best Avay, I find, is to spread it 
ou the ice Avheu the vines arc flow^ed in the Aviuter. The 



LETTERS PROM PRACTICAL GROWERS. 105 

process of flooding, and especially of late flooding, does 
something to prevent the ravages of tlie berry worm, and 
it is at least a partial remedy for this evil, which most 
cranberry growers have to contend with. 

There are several other insects that interfere more or 
less with our cranberry crops, which, as yet, we have not 
been able to find any remedy for ; the most destructive, 
and the least likely to be noticed by growers, is a very 
small, orange-colored insect, called the tip- worm, which 
preys only on the new-formed buds at the tip of the 
shoots. This insect is too small to be readily seen, but 
its presence is indicated by two leaves at the top of the 
shoot standing erect, and concaved, or spoon-bowl shaped 
on the inner, or bud side. It seems to do its work in the 
summer, while the berry is growing, and buds forming 
for next year's crop. Very few yards are entirely free 
from this insect. Some can be found in almost every 
cranberry patch, and, in a few cases, tliey have been 
known to destroy the whole crop. 

There is also a peculiar kind of span worm, of a dark 
brown color, which makes its appearance in swarms, like 
the locusts of Egypt, destroying everything in their way. 
We have a very few patches attacked by them almost 
every season ; as j'^et, we know nothing of their parent- 
age or habits, except what we witness in their work on 
the vines. They come when the fruit is about setting. 
The worm and the fruit may both be destroyed by flood- 
ing — that is, the worm will drown, and the fruit drop off. 

Respectfully yours, 

Zebina H. Small. 

To J. J. White : — After nearly twenty years' personal 
experience in cranberry culture, and a favorable opportu- 
nity of observing the practice of other cultivators, I have 
come to this conclusion. For the successful cultivation of 
this fruit the following requisites are necessary ; 
5=^ 



106 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

First. — A peat or muck soil, free from loam or clay. 

Si'coiul. — Clean beach sand for covering the ])eat. 

Til i id. — A dam and water, to overfloAV the vines when 
necessary. 

Fourth. — Thorough drainage. 

With all these ad\ antages, apparently, there have been 
some failures — without them I know of no one who has 
profitably cultivated this crop. 

The limit of profitable cultivation of the cranberry 
will probably be found between the thirty-ninth aiul forty- 
second degrees of latitude. North of this, the period be- 
tween the ripening of the berry and frost is too short for 
harvesting the fruit. South of it, the temperature is too 
great for properly ripening the fruit. 

P'rosted berries are improved for immediate use, but 
w ill not bear carriage. 

When the fruit is grown, and ripening, exposure to the 
sui\ with a temperature of ninety degrees, Fahi'enheit, 
scalds the fruit, and renders it worthless. 

Good cranberry ground can be selected with much cer- 
tainty by observing the natural growth of vegetation ; 
the best are those deep peat bottoms, in which the White 
Cedar or Juniper flourishes. 

Next in value are the heath ponds, w^th a thinner muck 
deposit, generally marked by a growth of Gander Bush 
{Cassandrd calyrulat(i)\ if these can be flowe<l with 
brandy-colored cedar swamp water (which derives its 
color from the muck or peat held in solution), they are 
very little inferior in value to the first. Other soils may 
sometimes repay the expense of i>reparation, but are best 
avoided. 

Good unimproved cranberry soil, without timber, is 
WH)rth from twx^nty-five to fifty dollars per acre. 

Properly preparing and planting the ground costs from 
one hundre<l and fifty to five hundred dollars per acre. 

First-class mea<lows, with three-year-old vines, have a 



LETTERS PROM PRACTICAL GROWERS. 107 

market value of about one thousand dollars per acre. 
Some have sold for that price, and repaid the purcliaser 
in three years. A few extra meadows have sold for fifteen 
hundred dollars per acre. 

If properly prepared, the expense of keeping a cran- 
berry meadow free from foreign growth is very small — 
averaging, probably, from three to ten dollars per acre, 
per annum. 

Picking is done by hand, and costs fifty cents per 
bushel. Bushel boxes, thoroughly ventilated, an<l cleated 
at the ends, so that they cannot lie close together, are 
best for preserving fruit that is stored. These boxes cost 
from sixteen to twenty cents each. The fruit, if well 
colored, should be placed in them in the meadow, to avoid 
unnecessary handling ; then carried in a spring wagon, 
and stored in a cool cellar. 

Fruit should be well colored before storing. If not so 
when picked, it should be spread thinly on floors, exposed 
to the light, but not to the sun. 

The market value of cranberries, during the winter just 
past, has ranged from three to seven dollars per bushel. 

Juliustown^ jV. J., Snio., 4, 1870. 

Barclay White. 

The following is the experie?ice of SarriKel II. Shreve^ 
of New Jersey. 

February^ 1867. 

In selecting a site for a cranberry bog, it is first neces- 
sary to ascertain if there be a peat or muck bottom, as, 
without this, our labor will be wasted. The peat should 
be without any mixture of loam or mud, and when taken 
out of the swamp, and dried, should be light and flaky. 
Its depth is not of consequence. In our swamps, it is 
found varying in depth from six inches to fifteen feet, and 
even of greater depths. It rests, generally, upon a coarse 



108 CRANBERRY CU LTUMK. 

white sand, and is mostly found of the best quaHty in 
cedar swamp bottomsi. Its deptli can be found by run- 
ning down a pole. 

The next requisite is thorough drainnge, whieh is 
equally important with the peat. If the swamp or land 
selected cannot be thoroughly drained, so that the Avater 
can be brought at least twelve inches below the surface, 
it had better be abandoned, no matter how advantageous 
the location may be, how well adapted the peat, nor how 
easily it is flooded. 

Having cleared the swamp of all turf and vegetation, 
smoothed the surface, and thoroughly ditched and drain- 
ed it, it is then ready for the sand. This should be clean, 
coarse, and entirely free from any mixture of loam ; 
otherwise, it will pack hard, and prevent the roots of the 
vine from spreading, and from reaching the peat or muck 
l)cneath. The runners cannot take root, and the plant 
will scarcely extend beyond the hill in which it is planted. 

Without the sand, vines planted upon peat will grow 
luxuriantly, and may bear one or two crops. The surface 
becomes covered with a dense growth of long runners and 
uprights of twice the usual length. The runners become 
woody, and the uprights are soft and flimsy. The pres- 
ence of sand is absolutely necessary in the growth of the 
healthful and fruitful vine. The vigorous, short upiights, 
full of berries, will have, when drawn through the fin- 
gers, a rough, grating feeling, compared with the long, 
barren uprights, grown upon pure peat. 

In additi(^n to checking the too luxuriant growth of the 
vine, and aflbrding a requisite element of its proper food, 
the sand, to a very great extent, prevents the growth of 
weeds. The depth of the sand upon the peat should not 
be less than six inches.* 

* When tlic muck is only one foot thick, two or three inches of sand will be 
found aufflcicut. 

J, 0, W. 



LETTERS FROM PRACTICAL GROWERS. 109 

Imperfect drainage will promote the growth of weeds, 
and check that of the vine. 

Flooding, though not absolutely necessary, is still very 
important. Judiciously managed, it will almost entirely 
protect a bog from the ravages of insects. 

The vines should be set out in the spring, and a little 
more care taken here, than is usual, will greatly advance 
their growth. A bunch of vines is often placed in a hole, 
or furrow, and the sand pressed around them ; and they 
are kept in an upright position, so that the runners have 
a difficulty in reaching the ground. Some little pains be- 
stowed upon the arranging of the roots, and placing the 
vines in an inclining position will be Avell repaid. 

There are many pieces of low ground in this country 
where there seems to be, naturally, the proportion of sand 
!md muck, and where it is necessary only to take off the 
turf and plow the ground to make it ready for the vine. 
In other places, after the removal of the turf, the peat is 
of so little depth that the plow will bring up the sand. 

"VVe have, growing wild, in addition to the Bell, Bugle, 
and Cherry varieties, others as well defined, and as valu- 
able. 

Cranberry cultivation is yet in its infancy, and we have 
much to learn concerning it ; and a little observation of 
the great number of bogs that are now making will teach 
us, from the great variety of soils on which they are 
made, and the different methods of making them, valuable 
ficts, in many cases, at a heavy expense, to unsuccessful 
cultivators. But of these facts I feel assured ; that a good 
peat bottom, pure sand, thorough drainage, and a proper 
flooding, will insure success. I have never known them 
to fail. Bogs have succeeded with but a part of these 
requisites, and similar bogs have failed. Because vines 
are found growing upon the surface of the water, twenty 
feet from land, where it is several feet deep, it is no reason 
that a bog should be flooded the whole year. Neither is 



110 CRANBERIIY CULTURE. 

the growth of wild vmes any indication that the soil there 
is peculiarly adapted to them ; nor is their absence any 
argument against the choice of a swamp. Exposure is of 
no consecpience. As compared with Cape Cod, our bogs 
are now cheaply made, less liable to injury from frost, and 
as productive ; our berries are larger, of finer color, and 
of better flavor. 



March 2Sth, 1870. 

The vitality of the cranberry vine is so great that, 
after it has been trans])lanted four or five years, if the 
season sliould be favorable, the yield is likely to be very 
great. This fact misleads many, and is the cause of many 
foolish theories. 

Many again form theories without ever having seen a 
successful cranberry bog. I mean one that averaged, 
from the time it wns five years old until it was ten years 
old, about 200 bushels per acre for every acre in vines. 

This large yield is not owing entirely to the soil, etc., 
as the following instance will show. Near mine was a 
bog of just five acres. It had never yielded much over 
600 bushels, though it was about seven years old. On 
my recommendation a friend bought it for $6,500. I di- 
rected the care and management of it, and the next crop 
was 1,500 bushels. Since then, the crop has been from 
1,150 to 1,1100 bushels, yearly — an average of over 200 
bushels per acre. The former owner now offers $10,000 
for the bog. I felt very confident of the result, for the 
vines were of a good variety, the soil and exposure excel- 
lent. 

My bog has never produced so large a crop, its largest 
being over 2,000 bushels on 7' 1^ acres, and its average 
about 200 bushels per acre. 

In a few words I will give you what I consider abso' 
lute recjuigites : 



LETTERS FROM PRACTICAL GROWERS. Ill 

A good, rich muck, entirely free from loam or clay ; 
pure, clean, white sand; good water; and first, last, and 
all tlie time, drainage, drainage, thorough drainage. I 
sometimes think tliat you can almost produce any effect 
upon a cranberry bog by proper drainage. 

There are many other points to be attended to, the 
chief of which is the vines. The habits of the vines differ 
greatly. Some appear to grow like trees, throwing out 
uprights from uprights, never taking new roots, but 
yearly increasing the size of the main stems, or runners. 
Others show a stronger disposition to form new roots, and 
seem to drop the old uprights, as new ones grow directly 
from tlie runners. These are more uniform in their yield, 
while the former produce larger crops ; but I believe will 
not live longer than about twelve years without resanding 
or pressing into the earth. 

I am, very respectfully, 

S. H. Shreve. 

Pemherton, N. J., March 21th, 1870. 

Dear Sir : — I received yours of late date a few days ago, 
wishing me to give you my experience in tlie cultivation 
of cranberries, which, I have no doubt, is similar to the 
experience of other growers whom you have consulted. 
I have been in the business of growing cranberries for 
about twelve years ; and, while all the ground that I have 
planted has paid well on the investment, some has not 
succeeded to my expectations, while other has succeeded 
far above them. 

At the time I commenced to cultivate the cranberry, 
it was a new business in this neighborhood. I had to 
gain knowledge by experience, which is by far the best 
way to acquire it. 

The articles that were written then on the culture of 
cranberries were detrimental to their growth, an<l calcu- 



112 CRAXBERKY CULTURE. 

lateil to lead the beginner from the laws of nature and 
success in the culture of the fruit. All advocated -beacli 
sand — so poor that nothing else would grow — and the 
ground \\ ell saturated with water in the summer season, 
and flowed in the months of June and July to kill the 
berry worm, all of which is at variance with the proper 
growth of the cranberry. I have found, by experience, 
that they will not grow, to jiroduce much fruit, on poor 
sand, unless it is underlaid with muck or peat, so near the 
surfice that the vines will have the benefit of it. And 
they will make but slow growth, and produce but small 
crops, unless well drained in summer. And that flooding 
in June or July will efleclually kill both berries and 
worms. 

Cranberiy bogs can be inigated, by liaving water run- 
ning throngli them in ditches. Irrigation will be a benefit 
in times of drouth ; but should the water become stagnant, 
the vines will cease to grow; and if it is long continued so, 
they will die. 

I have had the best success on muck or peat. Have 
had as good success without sanding as with ; both have 
done well when properly drained, yielding from 100 to 
200 bushels per acre, while the savanna land has yielded 
but from 15 to 40 bushels per acre. 

In short, I think the success of laising cranberries is 
based on three points, viz. : 1st. Thorough drainage in 
summer. 2d. Plenty of mud or peat, destitute of loam 
or clay. 3d. Flooding in winter, to kill the vine worm. 
Hoping this may meet your views, 

I remain your Frien<l, 

Theodore Budd. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE CKANBEERY. 113 

APPENDIX. 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE CRANBERRY. 

Report of JVilUam C. Fish to the Gape God Granherr'^ 
Growers' Association hi 1869. 

It will be necessary for us to understand, at the outset, 
the different stages through which nearly all true insects 
pass before arriving at maturity. As an example, we will 
first consider the life of the 

Vine WoK^r. 

These worms hatch somewhere about the 20th of May, 
from eggs that have remained upon the vines all winter. 
These eggs are a flat, circular scale, of a honey-yellow 
color, and measure about 0.3 of an inch. Just before it 
is time for tlie ^^^ lo, hatch, the black head of the young 
worm can be seen through the skin with the naked eye. 

When hatched, the j^oung worm immediately finds its 
way to the end of the young shoot, and commences to 
feed upon the tenderest leaves, drawing some of them to- 
gether with its web for shelter. It is, at this time, of a 
pale yellow color, with a black head. In this way they 
continue to work, drawing more leaves together, and 
feeding first on the tenderest j^arts, and then upon the 
older leaves. When very numerous, by the time they 
are full grown, they will have eaten most of the leaves 
and tender shoots, leaving very little excejjt dry stems. 

They attain tlieir full size in about two weeks from 
hatching, and are then about 0.45 of an inch in length, 
having become of a dull yellow-green, with a black head. 

It now prepares to pass from the larva to the pupa 
stage of existence by spinning a slight cocoon among the 



114 CRANBEKRY CULTURE. 

dead leaves, or among the litter at the surface of the 
ground, and within this the worm becomes a pupa, or 
clir\ salis, as it is sometimes called. This pupa is about 
O.2.") of an inch in length, and is light brown. 

Remaining quiet in this state for from ten to thirteen 
days, the pupa works its way partly out of the cocoon, 
the skin splits, and the moth escnpes. The insect having 
become a moth (or miller is the ccmimon name), has ar- 
rived at its perfect, or imago state, and its mission no\v is 
to lay eggs for another brood of worms. 

These moths were numerous in Eastham from the 10th 
of June until about the first of July. The eggs were de- 
posited on the under side of the leaves. 

It was a common theory that the eggs were " laid in 
the bud ;" but I have never been able to find one there, 
and have yet to meet with the person that found the egg 
on that i)art of the plant ; therefore, I am forced to con- 
clude that it was only theory. I have seen hundreds of 
the eggs, and never one but it w^as on the under side of 
the leaf 

This moth is most active in the afternoon, :>nd just at 
eve. The eggs that are laid in June hatch sometime 
about the 4th of July, and the insect pisses through the 
same stages of existence as before, motiis coming out in 
August, and laying eggs on tlie n hie. These eggs remain 
on the vines all winter. A very few may hatch in Sep- 
tember, but I have never succeeded in finding more than 
three or four in that month. The first brood is not usu- 
ally so numerous as the second ; but this year the first 
brood visited the bog of Mr. Nathaiiiel Robbins, of Har- 
wich, and completely stripped the vines, eating everything 
that it could eat. I visited his bog on the 28th of June, 
and I never saw the second brood do more than this first 
brood did. T think this bog was under water until the 
first of June. 

At Sandwich, on the 16th of July, there were vine 



INSECTS INJl laOUS TO THE CRANBERRY. 115 

Avorms of the second brood nearly full fjrown upon one 
bog, while upon another, several miles away, the millers 
were just laying their eggr^ for the second brood. 

Water is, and probably always will be, the most ef- 
fective agent in destroying this insect. Those that have 
this convenient will find it best, I think, to flow their bogs 
once or twice between the lOtli of May and the 7th of 
June — that is, if they let off the water eaily in the spring. 
If tiiey keep on tiie water until the first of June, it would 
be well to flow two or thiee times during the month. 

I think it will be difiicult to find anything that can be 
readily applied to destroy these insects in their larva, or 
worm state. They live so sheltered within the leaves that 
they have drawn together, tliat it is almost impossible to 
reach them all, except with water. 

When they have spim their cocoons, and have been 
changed to chrysalides, I think it doubtful if we can reach 
them with anything. 

I hope that, in time, we shall find some way to entrap 
the millers and destroy them ; or that something w411 be 
found that will make the vines offensive, and drive them 
away. 

Knowing that some moths were attracted by a mixture 
of molasses and water, I experimented with that, and 
found that it d^d r>ot attract this miller. I have had no 
opportunity to test fires, but from what I can learn from 
others, I think that it is an uncertain remedy, at least. 

iNIany of these millers might be destroyed by catching 
them in a hand-net of muslin, and crushing them. On a 
large bog, this would be tedious ; but on a small bog, one 
or two persons could soon catch most of the millers after 
a little practice in handling the net, going over the vines 
about sunset. 

Sawdust, or old rags that have been soaked in kerosene, 
or something else offensive to ins!_cts, if scattered about 



116 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

among the vines, just as the millers come out, might drive 
them away, although I have not tried the experiment. 

"The Fruit Worm" 

Is placed, by scientific men, in the same family, Tor- 
tricidjT?, as the vine worm, but it is a distinct species. 

It is probable that the most of us ai'C familiar with the 
habits of this insect in its larva state. About the first of 
August, some of the small cranberries will turn prema- 
turely red ; and, on opening them, we find a small yellow- 
green M'orm feeding upon the inside of the berry. Hav- 
ing exhausted the interior of one, it enters another, and in 
this way destroys several before reaching its full size. 

I took the first one this year upon the 21st of July, and 
at this date, August 18th, they are full grown and some 
have left the fruit. The above dates refer to bogs that 
were not flowed in the winter. 

On such bogs, I have always found it hard to find the fruit 
worm after the first of September. They travel at night, 
from one cranberry to another. When full grown, they are 
about one-half of an inch in length, and are of a light green 
color, tinged with pink upon the back. The mouth is dark 
brown. They now enter the ground, and just below the 
surface, they spin a close cocoou, covered with grains of 
san<l, or other substance, and there change to chrysalides. 

This is as far as I have traced thcni, as all that T have 
tried to raise for several seasons have died after spinning 
their cocoons. They have to be kept over winter, to rear 
the moth, and they do not do well in the house. 

This worm has been considered the same as the " apple 
worm," but it is distinct from that insect. There can be 
no doubt but that it is the larva of a moth, as I have high 
scientific authority for the statement. 

Some have thought that it was similar to the curcu- 
lio, and that the parent insect punctured the fruit and 



INSECTS INJTJRIOtJS TO THE CRANBEERY. 117 

laid its eo-or within ; but there is no resemblance whatever 
between this insect and the curculio, except that they both 
destroy fruit; and there are no tacts to prove that the pa- 
rent insect punctures the berry. 

The millers have no instruments, to my knowledge, 
with which they could pierce the skin of a cranberry. 

One gentleman has raised " waspish " flies from these 
worms. So have I, after keeping the cocoons over winter ; 
but they were ichneumons of two difierent species, para- 
sites that had destroyed the worms, and were, therefore, 
our friends instead of enemies. 

I hope to rear the moth by another spring, and if I do, 
will report to the Association. I watched closely to de- 
tect the moth in depositing its egg, but did not succeed. 

In the absence of all facts in regard to the moth, the 
most natural theory seems to be that the egg is laid by 
the moth upon the berry just after it sets, and the egg 
hatching, the young worm burrows into the fruit. 

The apple moth belongs to this family, and deposits its 
egg upon the apple in the blossom end, the egg hatches, 
and the worm eats its way into the fruit. I hope, in 
time, to learn the facts. During the first half of August, 
the wormy berries examined w411 have, in nine cases out 
of ten, the hole close to the stem. After the worms get 
larger, the hole will more frequently be on the side. 

I found that by putting the berries under water, the 
worms would come out in a few hours, and that twenty- 
four hou)-s would destroy them. I have tried twelve 
hours, and found that to be enough to kill most of them, 
although two or three had their holes stopped so tightly 
that the water did not reach them. It has been remarked 
by a friend that, where a bog can be flowed, the water is 
usually kept on long enough in sjiring to prevent these 
insects doing great injury; but as some are giving up the 
practice of late flowing, it may be found advantageous to 
flow some time between the 10th and 25th of August, 



118 CRAXBEKUY CUl/rUUE. 

provided it does not injure tlie berries. I find a differ- 
ence of opinion among growers as to the effect that water 
would liave upon the bei-ries at that time, and the matter 
could only be decided by experiment. 

At their first appearance, I think it would be useless to 
flow, as at that time the berry is almost completely water- 
tight. 

Mr. Wm. Chipraan, of Sandwich, once tried with suc- 
cess strewing ashes over the vines, just as the berries were 
setting. Mr. Joshua Cole, or Plastham, once tried tobacco 
water with good effect ; he tried it again another year, 
without success. 

It will be necessary for those who experitnent with such 
things to be well posted in regard to the habits of the 
insects they are dealing with, as a few hours'' difference in 
the time of using any remedy might make success impos- 
sible. 

There is but one other caterpillar tliat has yet proved 
very destructive to the cranberry, and that is known as 
the 

Black Spax Worm, 

although it is far from being black. 

I first met with this insect at Harwich, August 25th, 
1860, where I saw some that had been taken from the bog 
of Mr. Wm. II. Underwood, where they did much dam- 
age. They also injured the vines of Mr. Nathaniel 
Hinckley, of Marston's Mills. 

I sent some of these span worms that were taken on 
Mr. Underwood's bog to A. S. Packard, Jr., M. D., of 
Salem, who was publishing a work on insects. 

He gives a description of it in his work called "A 
Guide to the Study of Insects," a work that should be in 
the hands of every one who has insects to deal with. 

Dr. Packard says of it : " It is a dull reddish-brown, 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE CRANBERRY. 119 

simulating the color of the twigs of the cranberry, and 
is finely lineated witli still darker lines. The head is 
speckled with brown, wdth a conspicuous transverse band 
across the vertex, and two rows of |)ale spots across the 
front. Just above the spiracles is a broad, dusky band. 
Beneath the body is pa'ler, w^ith a mesial clear line, edged 
with brown. It is 0.8 of an inch in length." 

This year I have heard from them but once. On the 
3d of August, Freeman Ryder, Jr., of North Harwich, 
sent me a small box, by mnil, containing quite a number 
of these span worms. I could not visit Mr. Ryder's bog 
until the next week, and when I did so, I found that they 
had all disappeared. They were not near so numerous as 
on Mr. Underwood's bog, last year. I think that they 
must go just under the surface of the ground to change 
to chrysalides. 

Only tw^o of those I received changed to chrysalides, 
and, as yet, the moth has not escaped. The chrysalis is 
0.38 of an inch in length, of a mahogany-brown color, 
quite dark about the head. 

This insect is probably only an occasional feeder upon 
the cranberry, for if this plant was its only food, we 
should find it every year u})on the bogs. It has been 
suggested to me that the European House Sparrow^ might 
be made useful if this insect should ever become very 
numerous. If it w^ould hunt out the vine worms also, 
and catch the millers as they come forth, it would be a 
very valuable friend. 

The common Blue Bird is one of the greatest desti'oyers 
of small caterpillars and worms, and should be protected 
everywhere. This span worm feeds upon the tender 
shoots, and later upon the older leaves. It spins no web. 

The Cecidomyia, or Gall Gxat, of the Cranberry. 

We now come to an insect very diflTerent from those 
before described. 



120 CRAXBERIIY CLLTriiE. 

If you go over your vines about tlie middle of June, 
and look carefully at the tips of the growing shoots, you 
will notice that some of the small leaves at the end are 
closed together. These leaves have much the same ap- 
pearance as those drawn together by the vine worm when 
it first commences to work in the tip of tiie shoot ; but if 
you examine them, you will find that there is no web, and 
that tlie leaves have grown out of shape. 

Within some of the smaller leaves, protected by those 
that are closed together, you will find the author of the 
mischief, a small, orange-colored maggot, without legs, 
and measuring, when full grown, but about 0.6 of an inch 
in length. 

This maggot, when it first hatches, is white, but its 
color increases as it grows, until, when full grown, it is 
orange. 

By the 30th of June, most of them will have spun a 
Jittle oblong cocoon within some of the small leaves at 
tlie end of the shoot. This cocoon resembles white tis>ue 
paper, and within can be found the oran ge colored pupa. 
In this state it can readily be distinguished from the 
maggot by the blunt head, wherens, hi the ninggot, both 
ends are tapering. 

After remaining in the cocoons about twelve days, the 
perfect insect, a gnat, comes forth. This gnat is 0.4 of an 
inch in length, its body is orange, and its wings transpar- 
ent. This gnat lays the eggs for another brood of mag- 
gots. The egg of this insect is unknown to me, the 
insect being so small, that the egg must be quite minute. 

The maggot only works amouLr the minute tender 
leaves at the end of the young shoots. Tltey have no 
jaws, and " must suck in the sa]) and moisture through 
the mouth, or absorb it through the skin. They make no 
excrement." 

This insect first came under my observation in June, 
1866, at Sandwich. It was very abundant at that place. 



INSECTS INJUKIOUS TO THE CRANBERRY. 121 

This year I went over the same bogs, and found it scarce. 
It seems to be widely distributed over the Cape, as I have 
not failed to find it on every bog I have visited. 

There is a little Chalcis fly that is a parasite upon this 
insect, and destroys large numbers. It is doing far more 
than man can to keep this insect under. 

I did not lind this masiscot numerous anywhere durino- 
the early part of the summer. On the 23d of this month 
I went over the bog of Mr. Nathaniel Hinckley, of Mars- 
ton's Mills, and found traces of the insect everywhere; it 
was too late to find the insects themselves, but in some 
places you could scarcely find a shoot but had been 
checked by the maggots. 

The effect of the occupation of this maggot of the tip 
of the shoot can be readily seen. The minute leaves and 
tender tip are killed, and the growth is stopped. If the 
shoot is strong, it may put out a shoot at the side, and 
this may, in turn, be checked. 

I have seen a shoot start the third time, although, most 
frequently, they do not grow more, but form buds, from 
which start side shoots next year. 

Mr. Hinckley and myself searched in vain for a side 
shoot with fruit on it. I have seen them with fruit, but 
rarely. 

In June, I tried to drown some of these maggots, and 
as they moved after remaining under water fourteen days, 
I gave it up. Later in the season, I met with Mr. Calvin 
Crowell, of West Sandwich, who informed me that he 
had saved some of his vines by flowing ; that after his 
bog had been flowed, he noticed that some of the shoots 
came right up between the leaves that were missliaped, 
proving that something had removed tlie insect. The 
only way that I could account for it was that the water 
might have washed out the maggots, and, they being 
without legs, could not get back to the end of the shoot. 
Since then, I have seen some things that led me to think 
6 



122 CRAXBERRY CULTURE. 

that such was tlie case. On Mr. Hinckley's boo- I noticed 
numbers of these shoots that plainly showed that the in- 
sect had commenced its work, but had been removed, as 
the shoot kept right on. On inquiring, I found that Mr. 
Hinckley had HoAved his bog on the 'iOth of June. This 
was, I think, rather late to liit most of them, but it proba- 
bly washed out some. 

After the insect has spun its cocoon, it is impossible 
either to wash it out or to drown it. Kecently, I placed a 
shoot in water that contained two of these maggots ; they 
were all I could find to experiment with. One of the 
two washed out, the other remained. 

Probably flowing would prove more efl*ectunl when the 
maggots are quite small, as the leaves do not close to- 
gether A'ery tightly until the maggot is nearly full grown. 
I hope it will be seldom that the bogs have such a visita- 
tion as the bog of Mr. Hinckley received. If any of the 
members of the Association wish to see what the insects 
can do when numerous, they had better visit this bog. 
Had I known that they were so numerous there during 
the early part of the summer, I should have been glad to 
have been upon the ground, to see what results would 
follow flowing when the maggots first commenced their 
work. It would be a good plan to flow when the parent 
gnat is out. Some might be bred in the house, and then 
one would know exactly when they were out. It is usu.dly 
some time about the 4th of July that the gnat coines forth. 

This first brood is the most numerous, although there 
are other broods as long as there are growing runners. I 
found a few of these maggots in September, 1868. 

I am not aware that this insect has ever been described 
by scientific men. I have, at difl*erent seasons, sent them 
to some of my scientific correspondents, but I cannot 
learn that they have published any description of it. 

It is a true Cecidomyia, closely related to the minute 
Hessian-fly, that is so destructive at times to wheat. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE CRANBERRY. 123 

I have searched many works relating to the Hessian- 
and Wheat-flies, hoping that some ot" the remedies that 
were used against those insects would answer for our gall 
gnat. Strips of woolen cloth, dipped in melted brimstone, 
and fastened to sticks in different parts of the field, and 
particularly on the w^indward side, are set on fire for sev- 
eral evenings in succession, at the time the gnats are de- 
positing their eggs. This has been efficient in the case 
of the ^Yheat-fly, and, if thoioughly tested, it might do 
good in the case of some of our insects. 

The minute Chalcis flies that sting the maggot, and 
deposit their eggs wnthin it (which hatch, and then we 
have a maggot within a maggot, the inside one having 
the advantage, and killing its host), are doiiig a great 
work ; and the Ichneumons, that w^ork in the same way 
upon the fruit and vine worms, are doing much to pre- 
vent their increase. I have seen large numbers of dead 
vine worms this season destroyed by these parasites. 

In closing my report, I wish to thank the members of 
the Association, and the cranberry growers generally, for 
the aid wiiieh they have given me, and for kindnesses 
which they have shown me at all times, during the three 
months that I have been engaged in these investigations; 
and if my report will in<luce the growers to study the 
habits of these insects themselves, and become acquainted 
with them, in a word, to become their own entomologists, 
I shall feel that the time which I have spent in the study 
of these insects has not been in vain. 

A New Vine-worm —Gelechia. 

A new vine-worm has recently attacked the Cranberry 
meadows of New Jersey. It is described by Mr. J. H. 
Brakeley as follows : " The Gelechia is a small moth 
of a dusky white color, with brown or chocolate-colored 
markings. It expands its wings about one-fourth of an 



124 CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

uicli. The larva is in general appearance, like that of the 
Tortrix, and a very little smaller. Tlie chrysalis also is 
similar. The flight of the moth is qnite rapid, and the 
quick motion of its wings in flight give it tlie appearance 
of a fly rather than that of a moth. There are but two 
broods in the year. The first brood of larvae come from 
the eggs laid in the preceding August, which remain on 
the vines during the winter ; the larvse make their ap- 
pearance soon after the removal of the water in the 
spring. The eggs are about one-fiftieth of an inch in 
diameter, and maybe found on the under side of the leaf. 
From one to two weeks from the time the water is drawn 
from the bog, the presence of the young larvae may be 
detected by the two terminal leaves of the vine being 
drawn together and fastened by a web. As these leaves, 
when drawn together, expose their under or lighter sides, 
it is readily noticed. As this occurs before the vines 
have commenced growing, they devour the bud and then 
the leaves, and, as they increase in size, draw together 
several uprights of the vines, the same as the larva? of 
the Tortrix. In a short time most of the leaves will be 
eaten up, and little will be seen except the old, dark- 
looking vines. After attaining their growth, they pass 
into the chrysalis state, and the moths appear early 
in June, two or three days before those of the Tortrix. 
These will spread themselves over other portions of the 
bog, seeking ^^ pastures new" on which to deposit their 
eggs for the second brood of larvae. This brood appears 
in July, and continues the work of destruction up to or 
past the middle of the month ; they then pass into the 
chrysalis state, and are followed by the second brood of 
moths early in August. When the eggs of these moths 
are deposited upon the vines, their work for the year is 
completed, and they gradually disajopear, none of them 
surviving the winter." 
The remedy for the ** Gelechia " is to submerge the 



TN'SECTS IN-JURIOUS TO THE CRANBERRY. 125 

infested vines several times after taking the water off in 
the spring. The water should be put on every ten days 
during the month of May, and allowed to remain ten 
hours. This treatment allows the eggs to hatch, and 
the young worms are quickly drowned. Where water is 
scarce, defer flowing until laLe winter, thus exposing the 
eggs to severe cold, which is thought to destroy them.* 

The " Scald " or Eot. 

In an essay on this subject Mr. J. A. Fenwick says : 
'^ When Cranberries on the vines are softened and become 
semi-transparent, or like jiartly cooked berries, it has 
become common to say that they are ^^ scalded." This 
softening does £.ometimes result from water covering 
them, and becoming hot and stagnant, but it generally 
occurs in a dry time, without water, and it is a misnomer 
to call it a scald. This roasting, rather than scald, 
which has destroyed the crop of berries so very much for 
a few years past, has been most destructive at the time of 
gathering the crop, or shortly before, the fruit as it ap- 
proaches ripening being more sensitive to a high tempera- 
ture. Only in extreme cases do large spaces in August, 
or before that, become generally softened while they are 
yet green, but have obtained some size. The effect of high 
heat is to produce spots in the fruit, the inner structure 
being disorganized ^ as shown by transparent spots, which 
grow larger on a repetition of the heat, j^articularly in 
muggy, wet weather, either on the vines or after being 
picked ; but some fruit in fair weather will dry up and 
t-he rest of the berries remain sound. 

" The effect of high temperature, when the fruit has 
but just formed, or until it is of some size, is to dwarf 
it, leaving it at picking time but little larger than it was 
when the blossom dropped from it. 

* Since the above was in type, Mr. White informs us that the insect is Anchy- 
lo2)era vaccinlana, Packard, fur several years destructive in New England.— Ed. 



12G CRA^^BERKY CULTURE. 

^' These facts being admitted, it would be wise not to 
advance southward with this cultivation. If the ber- 
ries will soften here occasionally and partially with high 
temperatures at picking time, Avhen the fruit is fully 
colored, Ave of course could advance to some point south 
of this, where the berries would be colored in the hot 
weather, and as a result, be softened every season. Con- 
sequently, I believe this cultivation will be prevented 
from advancing very far south of the State of New Jer- 
sey, unless it should be in elevated mountain districts. 
To the northward, we would reach a point at which the 
coloring of the fruit to perfection, and the time for freez- 
ing weather, would come together; hence the berries would 
always be frozen soft before picking if they were left until 
tliey were colored. In my judgment this culture cannot 
extend beyond 45° of nortli latitude. 

*^ The only thorough and complete remedy which we 
have for this scald, is irrigation through the means of fre- 
quent ditches. A patch meagerly covered with vines would 
in time be partially remedied by the production of a dense 
covering, or periiaps by the application of manure to a 
poverty-stricken soil, to encourage the growth, of a cover- 
ing of the ground. An increased quantity of ditches, in 
a bog considered too dry to need them, may also assist 
in preventing scald, as the vines would root deeper, 
and consequently Avould not suffer with a severe drouth. 
These, with a judgment to select a soil and situation 
which has the requisite moisture with drainage, are tlie 
only means that I can think of to prevent tliis trouble. 

" These conclusions are the result of a number of ob- 
servations of the weather for the past fifteen years, and 
some of these I shall enumerate and comment upon to 
show, in a measure, how they were derived. 

'^I have seen Cranberries in an open-top glass jar, 
good, sound fruit, one half softened from the effect of 
the sunlight, which shone through a window upon that 



II^SECTS INJURIOUS TO THE CRANBERRY. 127 

half. The other half, where the sun did not reach, 
were left sound. Good sound berries, picked and left 
standing in the sun, in a box or barrel, on hot days will 
soften upon the top. The sun's rays shining through a 
window on berries stored in a building, will soften them 
wherever the direct rays fall upon them at mid-day, or if 
the thermometer reaches seventy-five in the shade at the 
time, they will become soft. 

'' The evidence is positive that berries exposed to the 
sun's rays, at the time the temperature is at eighty or 
more in the shade, will be softened ; that is, if they are 
picked. But if the vines are suffering from drouth, and 
fail to supply the fruit hanging upon them with mois- 
ture, is not the effect in cutting short the supply the 
same as if we pick the berries ? It is evident that, at 
high temperatures, the fruit evaporates water from its 
skin, and this, carrying off caloric in a latent form, keeps 
the internal structure cool, and so prevents the disor- 
ganization of its parts. It is evident also, that moist 
surfaces of ground must be cooler than dry ones, and 
the berries growing upon them will be at a lower tem- 
perature from the evaporation of its moisture. 

'^^Let us suppose a bog with frequent ditches, and the 
water kept at a uniform depth from the surface in every 
part, and a * Scald ' comes on ; the fruit on some parts 
of it may be softened, and on others not. I have ex- 
amined the sub-soil in places where the fruit was soft- 
ened, and it was coarse gravel, for this or some other 
reason, it was unable to raise the moisture to the sur- 
face by capillary attraction, and had acquired a higher 
temperature at the surface where the soft berries were 
than elsewhere. 

" I have seen the berries soften on surfaces black with 
shallow layers of muck, while a few feet from them, on a 
surface of white sand, berries escaped, the sub-soil being 
the same in both places. A thermometer placed among 



138 CEANBERlJy CULTURE. 

the yines on tlie blackened surface, indicated 8° higher 
than on the whitened one. I have found that fruit, 
picked from vines that do not hide the ground, is 
unsound. It has been so for many years in my experience. 

^* A few years since, about the first week in September, 
I visited, before dayhght in tbe morning, a natural bog, 
with a heavy crop of fruit, and found the vines and fruit 
everywhere covered with frost ; but an hour or two 
after sunrise, on some parts of the bog, the fruit was 
softened, and on others not. Where the soil was sandy, 
and the vines comparatively short, with the fruit exposed 
to view, and the weather, there were no softened berries. 
But when hidden from view by grass, on mud bottom, 
and where there was a mulch of old grass, and there were 
vines between the soil and fruit, the berries were softened. 
The same thing was noticed on several other occasions ; 
I can only explain it by supposing that sand, with less 
mulch upon it, was a better conductor of caloric than 
the mud, with its heavy mulch. The fruit over the sand 
began to thaw first, from the warmth of the earth, and 
increased warmth of the day. The thawing was done 
slowly, and the berries were not softened, but no thawing 
was done on the muddy and heavily mulched ground 
until the direct rays of the sun shone upon the berries, 
and thawed them rapidly enough to break up their struc- 
ture. By sanding vines subject to softening by frost, the 
trouble has been in a great measure prevented. 

'' I have seen fruit with the defective spots dried up, and 
appear not to spread ; not unlike the dry, rotten spots in 
apples ; and I feel that the rapid spread of the scald is 
caused by the moist, rainy weather, acting on berries 
rendered defective by the previous drouth. This would 
explain all the loss that occurred after the rains began, 
except on those bogs that were covered by water. 

•'In June last, I set two women at work picking 
three rows of gooseberries in my garden. These rows 



KEW JERSEY STA^-DARD PACKAGES. 129 

were about ninety yards long, sloping downward from 
some large trees at the top of the garden to moist land 
at the bottom. The soil is good, rich sand, that produced 
annually good crops of vegetables. The pickers began 
at the top near the trees, at seven o'clock in the morning, 
each taking a row, leaving one row unpicked ; by eleven 
o'clock, they had picked two-thirds of the way down the 
two rows, and by that time the fruit on the upjDcr end 
of the remaining row was softened half way down it by 
the heat and drouth, the thermometer standing at 90° in 
shade at the house. The parts of the rows on the lower 
or moister end were not softened. The softened goose- 
berries appeared very similar to the softened cranberries, 
and it struck me at once that they were made soft from 
exactly the same causes. That is, extreme high summer 
temperature, with an absence of the necessary moisture 
for the functions of the plant producing them^ and per- 
haps the light in the direct rays of the sun." 



NEW JERSEY STANDARD PACKAGES. 

Tlie standard cranberry packages of New Jersey are of 
the following sizes : 

Boxes or Orates — Bushel, Sy^ xl2x22 inches, inside 
measure. 

Barrels, inside measure — Diameter head, IG'/^ inches ; 
diameter bilge, ISy^ inches ; depth, 25yg inches. 

Heads should be made of seasoned material only. 



INDEX. 



Alluvial formation 25 

American Cranberry 7 

Amphicarpuni Purshii 58 

Analysis of Cranberry 10 

Appendix 113 

Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi is 

Ashes G3 

Bear-berry 18 

Bell Cranberry 12 

Bill-liook 36 

Bishop, N. II 30 

BiuUrs, Theodore, Letter Ill 

Bui^le Cranberry 12 

Canned Cranberries 95 

Cassandra calyculata 30 

Cherry Cranberry 12 

Choice of Locations 25 

Clean Surfaces necessary 48 

Color of Cranberries 14 

Covering by Sand 56 

Cranberry, American 7 

" Analysis of. 10 

" Bell 12 

" Bugle 12 

Cherry 12 

High 18 

High-bush 18 

Hog 18 

Jelly 94 

" Large 7 

" Mountain 18 

" On Upland 17 

" Sauce. 94 

" Small 7 

" Spice 8 

" Varieties of 12 

Cuttings, Sowing 56 

Dams 65-67 

Double-seeded Millet 58 

Drift Formation 27 

130 



Drainage 58 

Drains 38 

Embankments 70 

Enemies and Difficulties overcome. 71 

Excessive Heat 82 

Exporting 95 

Fan, Cranberry 93 

" Portable 86 

Feather-leaf 30 

Fences 45 

Fen wick, Jas. A .73-74 

Fertilizers 62 

Fires 45 

Fish's, W. C, Report ..113 

Flood-gates 09 

Flooding 64 

Fork for Fence Making 46 

Frosts 80 

Gander-bush 30 

Grass . . S3 

Ground Laurel 30 

Grouse Berry 18 

Gum-tree 30 

Hall, Capt. Henry 21 

Heath Ponds 29 

" Preparing 41 

High-bush Cranberry IS 

High Cranberry 18 

Hill Planting 51 

History of Cultivation. 19 

Hog Cranberry 18 

H(n-sford's, Prof. E. N., Analysis. . . 10 

Hunt, J. Gibbons 00 

Insects '^^ 

" Anchylopera vacciniana 75 

" Black Span-Worni 118 

" Cecidomyia 119 

" Crickets 70 

" Fruit-Worm 71-116 

" Gall-Gnat W 



ORANBERKY CULTURE. 



131 



Insects, Grasshoppers 79 

Span-worm t>J: 

" Tip-worm S3 

" Vine-worm 74-113-123 

Kalniia augustifolia 30 

Keeping 91 

Laun-l, Ground 30 

Large C'raiiberry ^ 7 

Leather-kaf 30 

Letters from Practical Growers 100 

Levelling 66 

Li me 63 

Locations, Choice of 25 

Makepeace's, A. D., Letter 101 

Management of Meadows 57 

Marl 63 

Meadows, Management of 

Mice 

Mill-ponds 

" Preparing 

Moss 



Mountain Cranberry 

Muck 

Mud as a Fertilizer 

Muskrats 

Natural Bogs, Improvement of. 

Natural History 

Nyssa multiflora 

Otis'. Amos, Letter 

Packard, A. S 

Peck Box 

Peruvian Guano 

Phinney, S. B 21 

Picking 

Pines of New Jersey 

Planting by Pressure 

" "in Drills 

"• in Strips 

Hill 

Sod 

" the Vines 

Pointsett. John 

Polytrichum commune 



Position of Vines . . 53 

Preparing the Ground 35 

Preserved Cranberries 95 

Profit and Loss 96 

Rushes 83 

Sacketts', S. A., Letter 100 

Sanding 39 

Sand, Test for 28 

Savannas 32 

Scalding 82-125 

Scalping 36 

Seed Sowing 57 

Shinn & Allston 56 

Shreve's, S. H., Letter 107 

Small Cranberry 7 

Small's, Zebina H., Letter 102 

Sod Planting 51 

Si)hagnum Moss 43 

Spice Cranberry 8 

Stable Manure 63 

Swamp Lands 30 

Swamps, Preparing 36 

Tickets 88 

Tree Moss 44 

Trenching for Sand 42 

True Cape Cod Variety 17 

Turf Cutter 44 

Turf Fence 45 

Turfing 36 

Unfruitful Vines 15 

" Upland " Cranberries 17 

Upland Cranberry 18 

Uplands 34 

Uva-Ursi 18 

Vaccinium macrocarpon 7 

" Oxycoccus 7 

" Vitis-Ida;a 18 

Viburnum Opulus 18 

Want of Money 84 

Webb, John.. 22 

Weeding 58 

White's. Barclay, Letter 105 

Willow Farm 78 



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types and varieties of cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels 
sprouts, kale, collards and kohl-rabi. An explanation is given 
of the requirements, conditions, cultivation and general 
management pertaining to the entire cabbage group. After this 
each class is treated separately and in detail. The chapter 
on seed raising is probably the most authoritative treatise on 
this subject ever published. Insects and fungi attacking thig 
class of vegetables are given due attention. Illustrated. 126 
pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $0.50 



Asparagus 

By F. M. Hexamer. This is the first book published in 
America which is exclusively devoted to the raising of aspara- 
gus for home use as well as for market. It is a practical 
and reliable treatise on the saving of the seed, raising of the 
plants, selection and preparation of the soil, planting, cultiva- 
tion, manuring, cutting, bunching, packing, marketing, canning 
and drying insect enemies, fungous diseases and every require- 
ment to successful asparagus culture, special emphasis being 
given to the importance of asparagus as a farm and money 
crop. Illustrated. 174 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth. . $0.50 



The New Onion Culture 

By T, Greiner. Rewritten, greatly enlarged and brought 
up to date. A new method of growing onions of largest size 
and yield, on less land, than can be raised by the old plan. 
Thousands of farmers and gardeners and many experiment 
stations have given it practical trials which have proved a 
success. A complete guide in growing onions with the great- 
est profit, explaining the whys and wherefores. Illustrated. 
5x7 inches. 140 pages. Cloth $0.50 



The New Rhubarb Culture 

A complete guide to dark forcing and field culture. Part 
I--By J. E. Morse, the well-known Michigan trucker and 
originator of the now famous and extremely profitable new 
methods of dark forcing and field culture. Part II— Compiled 
by G. B. FiSKE. Other methods practiced by the most experi- 
enced market gardeners, greenhouse men and experimenters in 
all parts of America. Illustrated. 130 pages. 5x7 inches. 
Cloth , , $0.50 



Farmer^s Cyclopedia 
of Agriculture ^ ^ 

A Compendium of Agricultural Science and Practice 
on Farm, Orchard and Garden Crops, and the 
Feeding and Diseases of Farm Animals 

'By EARLEY VERNON WILCOX, Ph. D. 
and CLARENCE BEAMAN SMITH, M.S. 

Associate Editors in the Office of Experi;nciit Stations, United States 
T)cparttncnt of Agriculture. 



THIS is a new, practical and complete pres- 
entation of the whole subject of agricul- 
ture in its broadest sense. It is designed 
for the use of agriculturists who desire 
up-to-date, reliable information on all 
matters pertaining to crops and stock, but more 
particularly for the actual farmer. The volume 
contains 

Detailed directions for the culture of every 

important field, orchard, and garden crop 

grown in America, together with descriptions of 
their chief insect pests and fungous diseases, and 
remedies for their control. It contains an account 
of modern methods in feeding land handling all 
farm stock, including poultry. The diseases which 
affect different farm animals and poultry are de- 
scribed, and the most recent, remedies suggested for 
controlling them. 

Every bit of this vast mass of new and useful 
information is authoritative, practical, and easily 
found, and no effort has been spared to include all 
desirable details. There are between 6,000 and 7.000 
topics covered in these references, and it contains 
700 royal 8vo pages and nearly 500 superb half- 
tone and other original illustrations, making the 
most perfect Cyclopedia of Agriculture ever at- 
tempted. 

Handsomely bound in cloth, $3.50; half morocco 
(Very sumptuous), $4.50, postpaid 



Marquette Building, Chicago, III, 



ORANGE JUDD COMPANY, =-—---■''-»«-..,,. v. 

6G96 23